zinc chloride injection, USP Warnings and Precautions

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WARNINGS

Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (2) may cause considerable tissue irritation.

Severe kidney disease may make it necessary to reduce or omit chromium and zinc doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the urine.

Copper Deficiency

Several post-marketing cases have reported that zinc products taken over extended periods of time (i.e., months to years) may result in copper deficiency. The cases reported the following complications of copper deficiency: anemia, granulocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and myeloneuropathy.

If a patient develops signs and symptoms of copper deficiency during treatment with zinc chloride, interrupt zinc treatment and check zinc and copper levels. Consider supplemental copper administration to treat copper deficiency and monitor zinc levels.

Aluminum Toxicity

This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Use only if the solution is clear and the seal is intact.

Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.

Zinc should not be given undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein because of the likelihood of infusion phlebitis and the potential for increased excretory loss of zinc from a bolus injection. Administration of zinc in the absence of copper may cause a decrease in serum copper levels.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic determinations of serum copper as well as zinc are suggested as a guideline for subsequent zinc administration.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

See DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION section.

Pregnancy

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with zinc chloride. It is also not known whether zinc chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Zinc chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Geriatric Use

An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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Warnings and Precautions

WARNINGS

Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (2) may cause considerable tissue irritation.

Severe kidney disease may make it necessary to reduce or omit chromium and zinc doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the urine.

Copper Deficiency

Several post-marketing cases have reported that zinc products taken over extended periods of time (i.e., months to years) may result in copper deficiency. The cases reported the following complications of copper deficiency: anemia, granulocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and myeloneuropathy.

If a patient develops signs and symptoms of copper deficiency during treatment with zinc chloride, interrupt zinc treatment and check zinc and copper levels. Consider supplemental copper administration to treat copper deficiency and monitor zinc levels.

Aluminum Toxicity

This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Use only if the solution is clear and the seal is intact.

Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.

Zinc should not be given undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein because of the likelihood of infusion phlebitis and the potential for increased excretory loss of zinc from a bolus injection. Administration of zinc in the absence of copper may cause a decrease in serum copper levels.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic determinations of serum copper as well as zinc are suggested as a guideline for subsequent zinc administration.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Zinc 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

See DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION section.

Pregnancy

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with zinc chloride. It is also not known whether zinc chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Zinc chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Geriatric Use

An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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