There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Ropivacaine is not approved for this use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional (incremental) doses should always be used. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered.
The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance, and the physical condition of the patient. Patients in poor general condition due to aging or other compromising factors such as partial or complete heart conduction block, advanced liver disease or severe renal dysfunction require special attention although regional anesthesia is frequently indicated in these patients. To reduce the risk of potentially serious adverse reactions, attempts should be made to optimize the patient's condition before major blocks are performed, and the dosage should be adjusted accordingly.
Use an adequate test dose (3 to 5 mL of a short acting local anesthetic solution containing epinephrine) prior to induction of complete block. This test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in such a fashion as to have displaced the epidural catheter. Allow adequate time for onset of anesthesia following administration of each test dose.
These products are intended for single-dose and are free from preservatives. Any solution remaining from an opened container should be discarded promptly.
15 to 30
15 to 25
15 to 20
75 to 150
113 to 188
150 to 200
10 to 20
2 to 4
3 to 5
4 to 6
20 to 30
100 to 150
113 to 150
5 to 15
25 to 75
38 to 113
Major Nerve Block†
(e.g., brachial plexus block)
35 to 50
10 to 40
175 to 250
75 to 300
10 to 25
5 to 8
6 to 10
(e.g., minor nerve blocks and infiltration)
1 to 40
5 to 200
1 to 15
2 to 6
LABOR PAIN MANAGEMENT
Lumbar Epidural Administration
20 to 40
10 to 15
0.5 to 1.5
6 to 14 mL/h
12 to 28 mg/h
Incremental injections (top-up)‡
10 to 15 mL/h
20 to 30 mg/h
POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT
Lumbar Epidural Administration
(e.g., minor nerve block)
1 to 100
2 to 200
1 to 5
The doses in the table are those considered to be necessary to produce a successful block and should be regarded as guidelines for use in adults. Individual variations in onset and duration occur. The figures reflect the expected average dose range needed. For other local anesthetic techniques standard current textbooks should be consulted.
When prolonged blocks are used, either through continuous infusion or through repeated bolus administration, the risks of reaching a toxic plasma concentration or inducing local neural injury must be considered. Experience to date indicates that a cumulative dose of up to 770 mg ropivacaine hydrochloride administered over 24 hours is well tolerated in adults when used for postoperative pain management: i.e., 2016 mg. Caution should be exercised when administering ropivacaine for prolonged periods of time, e.g., > 70 hours in debilitated patients.
For treatment of postoperative pain, the following technique can be recommended: If regional anesthesia was not used intraoperatively, then an initial epidural block with 5 mL to 7 mL ropivacaine is induced via an epidural catheter. Analgesia is maintained with an infusion of ropivacaine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL (0.2%). Clinical studies have demonstrated that infusion rates of 6 mL to 14 mL (12 mg to 28 mg) per hour provide adequate analgesia with nonprogressive motor block. With this technique a significant reduction in the need for opioids was demonstrated. Clinical experience supports the use of ropivacaine epidural infusions for up to 72 hours.
Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection since they have been related to incidents of swelling and edema.
When chemical disinfection of the container surface is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol (70%) is recommended. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished by wiping the vial stopper thoroughly with cotton or gauze that has been moistened with the recommended alcohol just prior to use. When a container is required to have a sterile outside, glass containers may, as an alternative, be autoclaved once. Stability has been demonstrated using a targeted F0 of 7 minutes at 121°C.
The solubility of ropivacaine is limited at pH above 6. Thus, care must be taken as precipitation may occur if ropivacaine is mixed with alkaline solutions. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter should not be administered.
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