Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection should be administered as a supplement to general anesthesia only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids.
Naloxone, resuscitative and intubation equipment, and oxygen should be readily available.
Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration of time consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see WARNINGS]. Because the risk of overdose increases as opioid doses increase, reserve titration to higher doses of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection for patients in whom lower doses are insufficiently effective and in whom the expected benefits of using a higher dose opioid clearly outweigh the substantial risks.
There is variability in the opioid analgesic dose and duration needed to adequately manage pain due both to the cause of pain and to individual patient factors. Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see WARNINGS].
Respiratory depression can occur at any time during opioid therapy, especially when initiating and following dosage increases with Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection. Consider this risk when selecting an initial dose and when making dose adjustments [see WARNINGS].
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
The usual recommended adult dose is 10 mg for a 70 kg individual administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously; this dose may be repeated every 3 to 6 hours as necessary. Use the lowest dose necessary to achieve adequate analgesia. Titrate the dose based upon the individual patient’s response to their initial dose of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection. Dosage should be adjusted according to the severity of the pain, physical status of the patient, and other medications which the patient may be receiving [see WARNINGS; Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants]. In nontolerant individuals, the recommended single maximum dose is 20 mg with a maximum total daily dose of 160 mg.
The use of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection as a supplement to balanced anesthesia requires larger doses than those recommended for analgesia. Induction doses of nalbuphine hydrochloride range from 0.3 mg/kg to 3 mg/kg intravenously to be administered over a 10 to 15 minute period with maintenance doses of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg in single intravenous administrations as required. The use of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection may be followed by respiratory depression which can be reversed with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride.
Individually titrate Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection to assess the maintenance of pain control, signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal, and other adverse reactions, as well as to reassess for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see WARNINGS]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration.
If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the nalbuphine hydrochloride dosage. If after increasing the dosage, unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed (including an increase in pain after dosage increase), consider reducing the dosage [see WARNINGS]. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse events.
When a patient who has been taking Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection regularly and may be physically‑dependent no longer requires therapy with Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection, taper the dose gradually, by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days, while monitoring carefully for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection in a physically-dependent patient [see WARNINGS, DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE].
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