Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor. Gemcitabine hydrochloride is 2´-deoxy-2´,2´-difluorocytidine monohydrochloride (β-isomer) with the following structural formula:
The empirical formula for gemcitabine hydrochloride is C9H11F2N3O4 ∙ HCl. It has a molecular weight of 299.66 g/mol.
Gemcitabine hydrochloride is soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in ethanol and polar organic solvents.
Gemcitabine hydrochloride is a sterile white to off-white lyophilized powder and available as 2 g single-dose vials for intravenous use only. Each 2 g vial contains 2 g of gemcitabine hydrochloride (expressed as free base), 2 g mannitol, and 125 mg sodium acetate. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment.
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