furosemide injection, USP VIAL Use in Specific Populations

()

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Available data from published observational studies, case reports, and postmarketing reports, from decades of use, have not demonstrated a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes with furosemide use during pregnancy. Untreated congestive heart failure and cirrhosis of the liver can lead to adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus (see Clinical Considerations).

In animal reproduction studies, furosemide has been shown to cause unexplained maternal deaths and abortions in rabbits when administered orally during organogenesis at 4 times a human i.v. dose of 80 mg based on body surface area (BSA) and oral bioavailability corrections, presumably secondary to volume depletion (see Data).

The estimated background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Pregnant women with congestive heart failure are at increased risk for pre-term birth. Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Clinical classification of heart disease may worsen with pregnancy and lead to maternal death and/or stillbirth. Closely monitor pregnant patients for destabilization of their heart failure.

Pregnant women with symptomatic cirrhosis generally have poor outcomes including hepatic failure, variceal hemorrhage, pre-term delivery, fetal growth restriction and maternal death. Outcomes are worse with coexisting esophageal varices. Pregnant women with cirrhosis of the liver should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.

Data

Animal Data

The effects of furosemide on embryonic and fetal development and on pregnant dams were studied in mice, rats and rabbits.

Furosemide caused unexplained maternal deaths and abortions in the rabbit at the lowest dose of 25 mg/kg (approximately 4 times a human i.v. dose of 80 mg based on BSA and oral bioavailability corrections). In another study, a dose of 50 mg/kg (approximately 7 times a human i.v. dose of 80 mg based on BSA and oral bioavailability corrections) also caused maternal deaths and abortions when administered to rabbits between Days 12 and 17 of gestation. In a third study, none of the pregnant rabbits survived an oral dose of 100 mg/kg. Data from the above studies indicate fetal lethality that can precede maternal deaths.

The results of the mouse study and one of the three rabbit studies also showed an increased incidence and severity of hydronephrosis (distention of the renal pelvis and, in some cases, of the ureters) in fetuses of treated dams as compared with the incidence of fetuses from the control group.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

The presence of furosemide has been reported in human milk. There are no data on the effects on the breastfed infant or the effects on milk production. Doses of furosemide associated with clinically significant diuresis may impair milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for furosemide and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from furosemide or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Published reports indicate that premature infants with post conceptual age (gestational plus postnatal) less than 31 weeks receiving doses exceeding 1 mg/kg/24 hours may develop plasma levels which could be associated with potential toxic effects including ototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Furosemide in the first year of life, especially in patients born pre-term, may precipitate nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Controlled clinical studies of furosemide did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for the elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Find furosemide injection, USP VIAL medical information:

Find furosemide injection, USP VIAL medical information:

Our scientific content is evidence-based, scientifically balanced and non-promotional. It undergoes rigorous internal medical review and is updated regularly to reflect new information.

furosemide injection, USP VIAL Quick Finder

Prescribing Information
Download Prescribing Information

Health Professional Information

Use in Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Available data from published observational studies, case reports, and postmarketing reports, from decades of use, have not demonstrated a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes with furosemide use during pregnancy. Untreated congestive heart failure and cirrhosis of the liver can lead to adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus (see Clinical Considerations).

In animal reproduction studies, furosemide has been shown to cause unexplained maternal deaths and abortions in rabbits when administered orally during organogenesis at 4 times a human i.v. dose of 80 mg based on body surface area (BSA) and oral bioavailability corrections, presumably secondary to volume depletion (see Data).

The estimated background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Pregnant women with congestive heart failure are at increased risk for pre-term birth. Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Clinical classification of heart disease may worsen with pregnancy and lead to maternal death and/or stillbirth. Closely monitor pregnant patients for destabilization of their heart failure.

Pregnant women with symptomatic cirrhosis generally have poor outcomes including hepatic failure, variceal hemorrhage, pre-term delivery, fetal growth restriction and maternal death. Outcomes are worse with coexisting esophageal varices. Pregnant women with cirrhosis of the liver should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.

Data

Animal Data

The effects of furosemide on embryonic and fetal development and on pregnant dams were studied in mice, rats and rabbits.

Furosemide caused unexplained maternal deaths and abortions in the rabbit at the lowest dose of 25 mg/kg (approximately 4 times a human i.v. dose of 80 mg based on BSA and oral bioavailability corrections). In another study, a dose of 50 mg/kg (approximately 7 times a human i.v. dose of 80 mg based on BSA and oral bioavailability corrections) also caused maternal deaths and abortions when administered to rabbits between Days 12 and 17 of gestation. In a third study, none of the pregnant rabbits survived an oral dose of 100 mg/kg. Data from the above studies indicate fetal lethality that can precede maternal deaths.

The results of the mouse study and one of the three rabbit studies also showed an increased incidence and severity of hydronephrosis (distention of the renal pelvis and, in some cases, of the ureters) in fetuses of treated dams as compared with the incidence of fetuses from the control group.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

The presence of furosemide has been reported in human milk. There are no data on the effects on the breastfed infant or the effects on milk production. Doses of furosemide associated with clinically significant diuresis may impair milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for furosemide and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from furosemide or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Published reports indicate that premature infants with post conceptual age (gestational plus postnatal) less than 31 weeks receiving doses exceeding 1 mg/kg/24 hours may develop plasma levels which could be associated with potential toxic effects including ototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Furosemide in the first year of life, especially in patients born pre-term, may precipitate nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Controlled clinical studies of furosemide did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for the elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Medication Guide

Health Professional Information

{{section_name_patient}}

{{section_body_html_patient}}

Resources

Didn’t find what you were looking for? Contact us.

MI Digital Assistant

Chat online with Pfizer Medical Information regarding your inquiry on a Pfizer medicine.

Call 800-438-1985*

*Speak with a Pfizer Medical Information Professional regarding your medical inquiry. Available 9AM-5PM ET Monday to Friday; excluding holidays.

Medical Inquiry

Submit a medical question for Pfizer prescription products.

Report Adverse Event

Pfizer Safety

To report an adverse event related to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, and you are not part of a clinical trial* for this product, click the link below to submit your information:

Pfizer Safety Reporting Site

*If you are involved in a clinical trial for this product, adverse events should be reported to your coordinating study site.

If you cannot use the above website, or would like to report an adverse event related to a different Pfizer product, please call Pfizer Safety at (800) 438-1985.

FDA Medwatch

You may also contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) directly to report adverse events or product quality concerns either online at www.fda.gov/medwatch or call (800) 822-7967.