Use of NSAIDs, including FELDENE, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of FELDENE use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, and avoid FELDENE use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations, Data).
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus
Use of NSAIDs, including FELDENE, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment
Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment.
Data from observational studies regarding other potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits, there was no evidence of teratogenicity at exposures up to 5 and 10 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), respectively. In rat studies with piroxicam, fetotoxicity (postimplantation loss) was observed at exposures 2 times the MRHD, and delayed parturition and an increased incidence of stillbirth were noted at doses equivalent to the MRHD of piroxicam. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as piroxicam, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in fetal kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:
Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including FELDENE, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (see Data).
Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment:
If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If FELDENE treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue FELDENE and follow up according to clinical practice (see Data).
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of FELDENE during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDS, including piroxicam inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.
Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis.
Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain.
Pregnant rats administered piroxicam at 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis (Gestation Days 6 to 15) demonstrated increased post-implantation losses with 5 and 10 mg/kg/day of piroxicam (equivalent to 2 and 5 times the MRHD, of 20 mg respectively, based on a mg/m2 body surface area [BSA]). There were no drug-related developmental abnormalities noted in offspring. Gastrointestinal tract toxicity was increased in pregnant rats in the last trimester of pregnancy compared to non-pregnant rats or rats in earlier trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnant rabbits administered piroxicam at 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis (Gestation Days 7 to 18) demonstrated no drug-related developmental abnormalities in offspring (up to 10 times the MRHD based on a mg/m2 BSA).
In a pre- and post-natal development study in which pregnant rats were administered piroxicam at 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day on Gestation Day 15 through delivery and weaning of offspring, reduced weight gain and death were observed in dams at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the MRHD based on a mg/m2 BSA) starting on Gestation Day 20. Treated dams revealed peritonitis, adhesions, gastric bleeding, hemorrhagic enteritis and dead fetuses in utero. Parturition was delayed and there was an increased incidence of stillbirth in all piroxicam-treated groups (at doses equivalent to the MRHD). Postnatal development could not be reliably assessed due to the absence of maternal care secondary to severe maternal toxicity.
Limited data from 2 published reports that included a total of 6 breastfeeding women and 2 infants showed piroxicam is excreted in human milk at approximately 1% to 3% of the maternal concentration. No accumulation of piroxicam occurred in milk relative to that in maternal plasma during treatment. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for FELDENE and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the FELDENE or from the underlying maternal condition.
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including FELDENE, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including FELDENE, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
FELDENE has not been investigated in pediatric patients. The safety and effectiveness of FELDENE have not been established.
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.14)].
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