8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Based on findings from animal studies and their mechanism of action [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)], bevacizumab products may cause fetal harm in pregnant women. Limited postmarketing reports describe cases of fetal malformations with use of bevacizumab products in pregnancy; however, these reports are insufficient to determine drug associated risks. In animal reproduction studies, intravenous administration of bevacizumab to pregnant rabbits every 3 days during organogenesis at doses approximately 1 to 10 times the clinical dose of 10 mg/kg produced fetal resorptions, decreased maternal and fetal weight gain and multiple congenital malformations including corneal opacities and abnormal ossification of the skull and skeleton including limb and phalangeal defects (see Data). Furthermore, animal models link angiogenesis and VEGF and VEGFR2 to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryo-fetal development, and postnatal development. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Pregnant rabbits dosed with 10 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg bevacizumab (approximately 1 to 10 times the clinical dose of 10 mg/kg) every three days during the period of organogenesis (gestation day 6–18) exhibited decreases in maternal and fetal body weights and increased number of fetal resorptions. There were dose-related increases in the number of litters containing fetuses with any type of malformation (42% for the 0 mg/kg dose, 76% for the 30 mg/kg dose, and 95% for the 100 mg/kg dose) or fetal alterations (9% for the 0 mg/kg dose, 15% for the 30 mg/kg dose, and 61% for the 100 mg/kg dose). Skeletal deformities were observed at all dose levels, with some abnormalities including meningocele observed only at the 100 mg/kg dose level. Teratogenic effects included: reduced or irregular ossification in the skull, jaw, spine, ribs, tibia and bones of the paws; fontanel, rib and hindlimb deformities; corneal opacity; and absent hindlimb phalanges.
No data are available regarding the presence of bevacizumab products in human milk, the effects on the breast fed infant, or the effects on milk production. Human IgG is present in human milk, but published data suggest that breast milk antibodies do not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with ZIRABEV and for 6 months after the last dose.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Bevacizumab products may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with ZIRABEV and for 6 months after the last dose.
Bevacizumab products increase the risk of ovarian failure and may impair fertility. Inform females of reproductive potential of the risk of ovarian failure prior to the first-dose of ZIRABEV. Long-term effects of bevacizumab products on fertility are not known.
In a clinical study of 179 premenopausal women randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab, the incidence of ovarian failure was higher in patients who received bevacizumab with chemotherapy (34%) compared to patients who received chemotherapy alone (2%). After discontinuing bevacizumab with chemotherapy, recovery of ovarian function occurred in 22% of these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of bevacizumab products in pediatric patients have not been established. In published literature reports, cases of non-mandibular osteonecrosis have been observed in patients under the age of 18 years who received bevacizumab. Bevacizumab products are not approved for use in patients under the age of 18 years.
Antitumor activity was not observed among eight pediatric patients with relapsed GBM who received bevacizumab and irinotecan. Addition of bevacizumab to standard of care did not result in improved event-free survival in pediatric patients enrolled in two randomized clinical studies, one in high grade glioma (n=121) and one in metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma or non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (n=154).
Based on the population pharmacokinetics analysis of data from 152 pediatric and young adult patients with cancer (7 months to 21 years of age), bevacizumab clearance normalized by body weight in pediatrics was comparable to that in adults.
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Juvenile cynomolgus monkeys with open growth plates exhibited physeal dysplasia following 4 to 26 weeks exposure at 0.4 to 20 times the recommended human dose (based on mg/kg and exposure). The incidence and severity of physeal dysplasia were dose-related and were partially reversible upon cessation of treatment.
8.5 Geriatric Use
In an exploratory, pooled analysis of 1745 patients from five randomized, controlled studies, 35% of patients were ≥65 years old. The overall incidence of ATE was increased in all patients receiving bevacizumab with chemotherapy as compared to those receiving chemotherapy alone, regardless of age; however, the increase in the incidence of ATE was greater in patients ≥65 years (8% vs. 3%) as compared to patients <65 years (2% vs. 1%) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].