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XANAX® XR, CIV Nonclinical Toxicology (alprazolam)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

No evidence of carcinogenic potential was observed in rats or mice administered alprazolam for 2 years at doses up to 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are 29 times and 4.8 times the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area, respectively.

Mutagenesis

Alprazolam was negative in the in vitro Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay and DNA Damage/Alkaline Elution Assay and in vivo rat micronucleus genetic toxicology assays.

Impairment of Fertility

Alprazolam produced no impairment of fertility in rats at doses up to 5 mg/kg per day, which is approximately 5 times the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg per day based on mg/m2 body surface area.

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

When rats were treated with alprazolam at oral doses of 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 30 mg/kg per day (3 to 29 times the maximum recommended human dose based on mg/m2 body surface area) for 2 years, a tendency for a dose related increase in the number of cataracts was observed in females and a tendency for a dose related increase in corneal vascularization was observed in males. These lesions did not appear until after 11 months of treatment.

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