8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Voriconazole can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data on the use of VFEND in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, oral voriconazole was associated with fetal malformations in rats and fetal toxicity in rabbits. Cleft palates and hydronephrosis/hydroureter were observed in rat pups exposed to voriconazole during organogenesis at and above 10 mg/kg (0.3 times the RMD of 200 mg every 12 hours based on body surface area comparisons). In rabbits, embryomortality, reduced fetal weight and increased incidence of skeletal variations, cervical ribs and extrasternal ossification sites were observed in pups when pregnant rabbits were orally dosed at 100 mg/kg (6 times the RMD based on body surface area comparisons) during organogenesis. Rats exposed to voriconazole from implantation to weaning experienced increased gestational length and dystocia, which were associated with increased perinatal pup mortality at the 10 mg/kg dose [see Data]. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, inform the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20% respectively.
Voriconazole was administered orally to pregnant rats during organogenesis (gestation days 6–17) at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day..Voriconazole was associated with increased incidences in hydroureter and hydronephrosis at 10 mg/kg/day or greater, approximately 0.3 times the recommended human dose (RMD) based on mg/m2, and cleft palate at 60 mg/kg, approximately 2 times the RMD based on mg/m2. Reduced ossification of sacral and caudal vertebrae, skull, pubic, and hyoid bone, supernumerary ribs, anomalies of the sternbrae, and dilatation of the ureter/renal pelvis were also observed at doses of 10 mg/kg or greater. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity at any dose.
Voriconazole was administered orally to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 7–19) at 10, 40, and 100 mg/kg/day. Voriconazole was associated with increased post-implantation loss and decreased fetal body weight, in association with maternal toxicity (decreased body weight gain and food consumption) at 100 mg/kg/day (6 times the RMD based on mg/m2). Fetal skeletal variations (increases in the incidence of cervical rib and extra sternebral ossification sites) were observed at 100 mg/kg/day.
In a peri- and postnatal toxicity study in rats, voriconazole was administered orally to female rats from implantation through the end of lactation at 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day. Voriconazole prolonged the duration of gestation and labor and produced dystocia with related increases in maternal mortality and decreases in perinatal survival of F1 pups at 10 mg/kg/day, approximately 0.3 times the RMD.
No data are available regarding the presence of voriconazole in human milk, the effects of voriconazole on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for VFEND and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from VFEND or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with VFEND. The coadministration of voriconazole with the oral contraceptive, Ortho-Novum® (35 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone), results in an interaction between these two drugs, but is unlikely to reduce the contraceptive effect. Monitoring for adverse reactions associated with oral contraceptives and voriconazole is recommended [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of VFEND have been established in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older based on evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adult and pediatric patients and additional pediatric pharmacokinetic and safety data. A total of 105 pediatric patients aged 2 to less than 12 [N=26] and aged 12 to less than 18 [N=79] from two, non-comparative Phase 3 pediatric studies and eight adult therapeutic trials provided safety information for VFEND use in the pediatric population [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years has not been established. Therefore, VFEND is not recommended for pediatric patients less than 2 years of age.
The frequency of phototoxicity reactions is higher in the pediatric population. Squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in patients who experience photosensitivity reactions. Stringent measures for photoprotection are warranted. Sun avoidance and dermatologic follow-up are recommended in pediatric patients experiencing photoaging injuries, such as lentigines or ephelides, even after treatment discontinuation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
VFEND has not been studied in pediatric patients with hepatic or renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5, 2.6)]. Hepatic function and serum creatinine levels should be closely monitored in pediatric patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.10)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
In multiple dose therapeutic trials of voriconazole, 9.2% of patients were ≥65 years of age and 1.8% of patients were ≥75 years of age. In a study in healthy subjects, the systemic exposure (AUC) and peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were increased in elderly males compared to young males. Pharmacokinetic data obtained from 552 patients from 10 voriconazole therapeutic trials showed that voriconazole plasma concentrations in the elderly patients were approximately 80% to 90% higher than those in younger patients after either IV or oral administration. However, the overall safety profile of the elderly patients was similar to that of the young so no dosage adjustment is recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].