8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
TYGACIL, like other tetracycline class antibacterial drugs, may cause permanent discoloration of deciduous teeth and reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8), Data, and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. There are no available data on the risk of major birth defects or miscarriage following the use of TYGACIL during pregnancy. Administration of intravenous tigecycline in pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis was associated with reduction in fetal weights and an increased incidence of skeletal anomalies (delays in bone ossification) at exposures of 5 and 1 times the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose in rats and rabbits, respectively. Advise the patient of the potential risk to the fetus if TYGACIL is used during the second or third trimester.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U. S. general population, the estimated background risk in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
The use of tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs, that includes TYGACIL, during tooth development (second and third trimester of pregnancy) may cause permanent discoloration of deciduous teeth. This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of tetracyclines but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. TYGACIL may cause reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours.
In embryo-fetal development studies, tigecycline was administered during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 12 mg/kg/day in rats and 4 mg/kg in rabbits or 5 and 1 times the systemic exposure at the recommended clinical dose, respectively. In the rat study, decreased fetal weight and fetal skeletal variations (reduced ossification of the pubic, ischial, and supraoccipital bones and increased incidences of rudimentary 14th rib) were observed in the presence of maternal toxicity at 12 mg/kg/day (5 times the recommended clinical dose based on systemic exposure). In rabbits, decreased fetal weights were observed in the presence of maternal toxicity at 4 mg/kg (equivalent to the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose).
In preclinical safety studies, 14C-labeled tigecycline crossed the placenta and was found in fetal tissues.
There are no data on the presence of tigecycline in human milk; however, tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs are present in breast milk. It is not known whether tigecycline has an effect on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Tigecycline has low oral bioavailability; therefore, infant exposure is expected to be low. Tigecycline is present in rat milk with little or no systemic exposure to tigecycline in nursing pups as a result of exposure via maternal milk. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for TYGACIL and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from TYGACIL or from the underlying maternal condition (see Clinical Considerations).
Because of the theoretical risk of dental discoloration and inhibition of bone growth, avoid breastfeeding if taking TYGACIL for longer than three weeks. A lactating woman may also consider interrupting breastfeeding and pumping and discarding breastmilk during administration of TYGACIL and for 9 days (approximately 5 half-lives) after the last dose in order to minimize drug exposure to a breastfed infant.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Use in patients under 18 years of age is not recommended. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Because of the increased mortality observed in TYGACIL-treated adult patients in clinical trials, pediatric trials of TYGACIL to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TYGACIL were not conducted.
In situations where there are no other alternative antibacterial drugs, dosing has been proposed for pediatric patients 8 to 17 years of age based on data from pediatric pharmacokinetic studies [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Because of effects on tooth development, use in patients under 8 years of age is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects who received TYGACIL in Phase 3 clinical studies (n=2514), 664 were 65 and over, while 288 were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity to adverse events of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
No significant difference in tigecycline exposure was observed between healthy elderly subjects and younger subjects following a single 100 mg dose of tigecycline [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
No dosage adjustment is warranted in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh A and Child Pugh B). In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C), the initial dose of tigecycline should be 100 mg followed by a reduced maintenance dose of 25 mg every 12 hours. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C) should be treated with caution and monitored for treatment response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.2)].