8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no available data with the use of Toviaz in pregnant women and adolescents to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of fesoterodine to pregnant mice and rabbits during organogenesis resulted in fetotoxicity at maternal exposures that were 6 and 3 times respectively the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 8 mg/day, based on AUC (see Data). The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. However, in the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
No dose-related teratogenicity was observed in reproduction studies performed in mice and rabbits. In mice at 6 to 27 times the expected exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 8 mg based on AUC (75 mg/kg/day, oral), increased resorptions and decreased live fetuses were observed. One fetus with cleft palate was observed at each dose (15, 45, and 75 mg/kg/day), at an incidence within the background historical range. In rabbits treated at 3 to 11 times the MRHD (27 mg/kg/day, oral), incompletely ossified sternebrae (retardation of bone development) and reduced survival were observed in fetuses. In rabbits at 9 to 11 times the MRHD (4.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous), maternal toxicity and incompletely ossified sternebrae were observed in fetuses (at an incidence within the background historical range). In rabbits at 3 times the MRHD (1.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous), decreased maternal food consumption in the absence of any fetal effects was observed. Oral administration of 30 mg/kg/day fesoterodine to mice in a pre- and post-natal development study resulted in decreased body weight of the dams and delayed ear opening of the pups. No effects were noted on mating and reproduction of the F1 dams or on the F2 offspring.
There is no information on the presence of fesoterodine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Toviaz and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Toviaz or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Toviaz have been established for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in pediatric patients aged 6 years and older and weighing greater than 25 kg. The information on this use is discussed throughout labeling. Use of Toviaz for treatment of NDO is supported by evidence from a randomized, open-label trial with an initial 12-week efficacy phase followed by a 12-week safety extension phase in pediatric patients from 6 years to 17 years of age (Study 3) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Study results demonstrated that treatment with Toviaz 4 mg and 8 mg daily resulted in improvements from baseline to Week 12 in maximum cystometric bladder capacity (MCBC) for patients weighing greater than 25 kg [see Clinical Studies (14.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The most commonly reported adverse reactions in patients who received Toviaz 4 mg or 8 mg in Study 3 (≥2%) were diarrhea, UTI, dry mouth, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, weight increase and headache [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Mean increases from baseline in heart rate were reported with both the 4 mg and 8 mg daily doses of Toviaz, with larger mean increases reported in pediatric patients who received the 8 mg daily dose [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
The safety and effectiveness of Toviaz have not been established in pediatric patients younger than 6 years of age or weighing 25 kg or less.
8.5 Geriatric Use
No dose adjustment is recommended for the elderly. The pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine are not significantly influenced by age.
Of the 1,567 patients who received Toviaz 4 mg or 8 mg orally once daily in Phase 2 and 3, placebo-controlled, efficacy and safety studies for OAB, 515 (33%) were 65 years of age or older, and 140 (9%) were 75 years of age or older. No overall difference in effectiveness was observed between patients younger than 65 years of age and those 65 years of age or older in these studies. However, the incidence of antimuscarinic adverse reactions, including dry mouth, constipation, dyspepsia, increase in residual urine, dizziness (8 mg only) and urinary tract infection, was higher in patients 75 years of age and older as compared to younger patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
8.6 Renal Impairment
In adult patients with severe renal impairment (CLCR <30 mL/min), Cmax and AUC are increased 2.0- and 2.3-fold, respectively. Doses of Toviaz greater than 4 mg are not recommended in adult patients with severe renal impairment. In patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (CLCR ranging from 30–80 mL/min), Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite are increased up to 1.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively, as compared to healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3 )].
The recommended dosage of Toviaz in pediatric patients weighing greater than 25 kg and up to 35 kg with mild-to-moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to 89 mL/min/1.73m2) is 4 mg once daily and Toviaz is not recommend in those with severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to 29 mL/min/1.73m2). In pediatric patients weighing greater than 35 kg with mild-to-moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to 89 mL/min/1.73m2), the recommended starting dosage of Toviaz is 4 mg orally once daily, with increase to the recommended dosage of Toviaz 8 mg orally once daily, and in those with severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to 29 mL/min/1.73m2) the recommended dose is 4 mg once daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.4)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) have not been studied; therefore Toviaz is not recommended for use in these patients. In patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment, Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite are increased 1.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively, as compared to healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].