8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Based on findings in animal studies and its mechanism of action, temsirolimus can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Although there are no data on the use of TORISEL in pregnant women, there are limited data on the use of sirolimus, the active metabolite of temsirolimus, during pregnancy; however, these data are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. In animal reproductive studies, oral daily administration of temsirolimus to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis caused adverse embryo-fetal effects at approximately 0.04 and 0.12 times the AUC in patients at the recommended dose, respectively (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential hazard to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Temsirolimus administered daily as an oral formulation throughout organogenesis caused adverse embryo-fetal effects in rats and rabbits at human sub-therapeutic exposures. Embryo-fetal adverse effects in rats consisted of reduced fetal weight and reduced ossifications, and in rabbits included reduced fetal weight, omphalocele, bifurcated sternabrae, notched ribs, and incomplete ossifications.
In rats, the adverse embryo-fetal effects were observed at the oral dose of 2.7 mg/m2/day (approximately 0.04-fold the AUC in patients with cancer at the human recommended dose). In rabbits, the adverse embryo-fetal effects were observed at the oral dose of ≥7.2 mg/m2/day (approximately 0.12-fold the AUC in patients with cancer at the recommended human dose).
There is no information regarding the presence of TORISEL or its metabolites in human milk, or their effects on the breastfed child or milk production. Trace amounts of sirolimus, the active metabolite of temsirolimus, were present in milk from lactating rats administered sirolimus. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed child from TORISEL, advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment with TORISEL and for 3 weeks after the final dose.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
TORISEL can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Population (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with TORISEL and for 3 months after the last dose.
Advise males with partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with TORISEL and for 3 months after the last dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Based on the findings in animal fertility studies, male and female fertility may be compromised by the treatment with Torisel. It is not known if the effects on fertility in animal studies were reversible [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
Limited data are available on the use of temsirolimus in pediatric patients. The effectiveness of temsirolimus in pediatric patients with advanced recurrent/refractory solid tumors has not been established.
TORISEL was studied in 71 patients (59 patients ages 1 to 17 years and 12 patients ages 18 to 21 years) with relapsed/refractory solid tumors in a phase 1–2 safety and exploratory pharmacodynamic study.
In phase 1, 19 pediatric patients with advanced recurrent/refractory solid tumors received TORISEL at doses ranging from 10 mg/m2 to 150 mg/m2 as a 60-minute intravenous infusion once weekly in three-week cycles.
In phase 2, 52 pediatric patients with recurrent/relapsed neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, or high grade glioma received TORISEL at a weekly dose of 75 mg/m2. One of 19 patients with neuroblastoma achieved a partial response. There were no objective responses in pediatric patients with recurrent/relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma or high grade glioma.
Adverse reactions associated with TORISEL were similar to those observed in adults. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in pediatric patients receiving the 75 mg/m2 dose included thrombocytopenia, infections, asthenia/fatigue, fever, pain, leukopenia, rash, anemia, hyperlipidemia, increased cough, stomatitis, anorexia, increased plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, headache, arthralgia, upper respiratory infection, nausea and vomiting, neutropenia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia.
In phase 1 of the above mentioned pediatric trial, the single dose and multiple dose total systemic exposure (AUC) of temsirolimus and sirolimus were less than dose-proportional over the dose range of 10 to 150 mg/m2.
In the phase 2 portion, the multiple dose (Day 1, Cycle 2) pharmacokinetics of TORISEL 75 mg/m2 were characterized in an additional 35 patients ages 28 days to 21 years (median age of 8 years). The geometric mean body surface adjusted clearance of temsirolimus and sirolimus was 9.45 L/h/m2 and 9.26 L/h/m2, respectively. The mean elimination half-life of temsirolimus and sirolimus was 31 hours and 44 hours, respectively.
The exposure (AUCss) to temsirolimus and sirolimus was approximately 6-fold and 2-fold higher, respectively than the exposure in adult patients receiving a 25 mg intravenous infusion.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of TORISEL did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Based on the results of a phase 3 study, elderly patients may be more likely to experience certain adverse reactions including diarrhea, edema, and pneumonia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16)].
8.6 Renal Impairment
No clinical studies were conducted with TORISEL in patients with decreased renal function. Less than 5% of total radioactivity was excreted in the urine following a 25 mg intravenous dose of [14C]-labeled temsirolimus in healthy subjects. Renal impairment is not expected to markedly influence drug exposure, and no dosage adjustment of TORISEL is recommended in patients with renal impairment.
TORISEL has not been studied in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
TORISEL was evaluated in a dose escalation phase 1 study in 110 patients with normal or varying degrees of hepatic impairment as defined by AST and bilirubin levels and patients with liver transplant (Table 3). Patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment had increased rates of adverse reactions and deaths, including deaths due to progressive disease, during the study (Table 3).
|Hepatic Function*||TORISEL Dose Range||Adverse Reactions|
Grade ≥ 3†
|Normal (n = 25)||25 – 175||20 (80.0)||2 (8.0)|
|Mild (n = 39)||10 – 25||32 (82.1)||5 (12.8)|
|Moderate (n = 20)||10 – 25||19 (95.0)||8 (40.0)|
|Severe (n = 24)||7.5 – 15||23 (95.8)||13 (54.2)|
|Liver Transplant (n = 2)||10||1 (50.0)||0 (0)|
TORISEL is contraindicated in patients with bilirubin >1.5×ULN [see Contraindications (4), and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Use caution when treating patients with mild hepatic impairment. If TORISEL must be given in patients with mild hepatic impairment (bilirubin >1–1.5×ULN or AST >ULN but bilirubin ≤ULN), reduce the dose of TORISEL to 15 mg/week [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Because there is a need for dosage adjustment based upon hepatic function, assessment of AST and bilirubin levels is recommended before initiation of TORISEL and periodically thereafter.