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Anti-infectives

Anti-infectives
Therapies to treat infectious diseases.

Anti-infectives Medications

Please select a product from the list to view its approved indications as well as the link to its full prescribing information. The list is not an all-inclusive list of Pfizer medications in a therapeutic area and inclusion of a product within this list should not suggest it is approved for a broad therapeutic area. Please refer to each medication’s individual prescribing information for specific details.

BACITRACIN® (bacitracin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BACITRACIN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for BACITRACIN.

WARNING

Nephrotoxicity: Bacitracin in parenteral (intramuscular) therapy may cause renal failure due to tubular and glomerular necrosis. Its use should be restricted to infants with staphylococcal pneumonia and empyema when due to organisms shown to be susceptible to bacitracin. It should be used only where adequate laboratory facilities are available and when constant supervision of the patient is possible.

Renal function should be carefully determined prior to and daily during therapy. The recommended daily dose should not be exceeded and fluid intake and urinary output should be maintained at proper levels to avoid kidney toxicity. If renal toxicity occurs the drug should be discontinued. The concurrent use of other nephrotoxic drugs, particularly streptomycin, kanamycin, polymyxin B, polymyxin E (colistin), and neomycin should be avoided.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in those individuals with a history of previous hypersensitivity or toxic reaction to it.

WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS

See "Warning Box" for precautions in regard to kidney toxicity associated with intramuscular use of bacitracin.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Adequate fluid intake should be maintained orally, or if necessary, by parenteral method.

As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Prescribing Bacitracin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

There have been reports of anaphylaxis and/or allergic contact dermatitis in patients exposed to Bacitracin in non-approved indications.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including Bacitracin, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Bacitracin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Bacitracin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Nephrotoxic reactions—Albuminuria, cylindruria, azotemia. Rising blood levels without any increase in dosage.

Other reactions—Nausea and vomiting. Pain at site of injection. Skin rashes.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

In accordance with the statements in the "Warning Box", the use of intramuscular bacitracin is limited to the treatment of infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci shown to be susceptible to the drug.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bacitracin and other antibacterial drugs, Bacitracin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

BICILLIN® CR (penicillin G benzathine, penicillin G procraine)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BICILLIN CR safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for BICILLIN CR.

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A previous hypersensitivity reaction to any penicillin or to procaine is a contraindication.

WARNINGS

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

The combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine should only be prescribed for the indications listed in this insert.

Anaphylaxis

SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS ON PENICILLIN THERAPY. THESE REACTIONS ARE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND/OR A HISTORY OF SENSITIVITY TO MULTIPLE ALLERGENS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED SEVERE REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH CEPHALOSPORINS. BEFORE INITIATING THERAPY WITH BICILLIN C-R CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE CONCERNING PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS OR OTHER ALLERGENS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, BICILLIN C-R SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE THERAPY INSTITUTED. SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.

Clostridium difficile associated with diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Bicillin C-R, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Method of Administration

Do not inject into or near an artery or nerve.

Injection into or near a nerve may result in permanent neurological damage.

Inadvertent intravascular administration, including inadvertent direct intra-arterial injection or injection immediately adjacent to arteries, of Bicillin C-R and other penicillin preparations has resulted in severe neurovascular damage, including transverse myelitis with permanent paralysis, gangrene requiring amputation of digits and more proximal portions of extremities, and necrosis and sloughing at and surrounding the injection site. Such severe effects have been reported following injections into the buttock, thigh, and deltoid areas. Other serious complications of suspected intravascular administration which have been reported include immediate pallor, mottling, or cyanosis of the extremity both distal and proximal to the injection site, followed by bleb formation; severe edema requiring anterior and/or posterior compartment fasciotomy in the lower extremity. The above-described severe effects and complications have most often occurred in infants and small children. Prompt consultation with an appropriate specialist is indicated if any evidence of compromise of the blood supply occurs at, proximal to, or distal to the site of injection.1-9 (See PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Do not inject intravenously or admix with other intravenous solutions. There have been reports of inadvertent intravenous administration of penicillin G benzathine which has been associated with cardiorespiratory arrest and death. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.)

Quadriceps femoris fibrosis and atrophy have been reported following repeated intramuscular injections of penicillin preparations into the anterolateral thigh.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Bicillin C-R in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of a development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma.

Care should be taken to avoid intravenous or intra-arterial administration, or injection into or near major peripheral nerves or blood vessels, since such injections may produce neurovascular damage. (See WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

A small percentage of patients are sensitive to procaine. If there is a history of sensitivity, make the usual test: Inject intradermally 0.1 mL of a 1 to 2 percent procaine solution. Development of an erythema, wheal, flare, or eruption indicates procaine sensitivity. Sensitivity should be treated by the usual methods, including barbiturates, and procaine penicillin preparations should not be used. Antihistamines appear beneficial in treatment of procaine reactions.

The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Constant observation of the patient is essential. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi appear during therapy, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.

Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy.

In prolonged therapy with penicillin, and particularly with high-dosage schedules, periodic evaluation of the renal and hematopoietic systems is recommended.

Information for Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Bicillin C-R should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Bicillin C-R is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Bicillin C-R or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Laboratory Tests

In streptococcal infections, therapy must be sufficient to eliminate the organism; otherwise, the sequelae of streptococcal disease may occur. Cultures should be taken following completion of treatment to determine whether streptococci have been eradicated.

Drug Interactions

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Concurrent administration of penicillin and probenecid increases and prolongs serum penicillin levels by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution and slowing the rate of excretion by competitively inhibiting renal tubular secretion of penicillin.

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to penicillin G. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Soluble penicillin G is excreted in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine are administered to a nursing woman.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs.

Pediatric Use

(See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Geriatric use

Clinical studies of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

As with other penicillins, untoward reactions of the sensitivity phenomena are likely to occur, particularly in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins or in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria.

The following have been reported with parenteral penicillin G:

General: Hypersensitivity reactions including the following: skin eruptions (maculopapular to exfoliative dermatitis), urticaria, laryngeal edema, fever, eosinophilia; other serum sickness-like reactions (including chills, fever, edema, arthralgia, and prostration); and anaphylaxis including shock and death. Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, penicillin G should be discontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to therapy with penicillin G. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.

Gastrointestinal: Pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS section.)

Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Neurologic: Neuropathy.

Urogenital: Nephropathy.

The following adverse events have been temporally associated with parenteral administrations of penicillin G benzathine:

Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including allergic vasculitis, pruritis, fatigue, asthenia, and pain; aggravation of existing disorder; headache.

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; hypotension; tachycardia; palpitations; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism; vasodilation; vasovagal reaction; cerebrovascular accident; syncope.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting; blood in stool; intestinal necrosis.

Hemic and Lymphatic: Lymphadenopathy.

Injection Site: Injection site reactions including pain, inflammation, lump, abscess, necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, cellulitis, hypersensitivity, atrophy, ecchymosis, and skin ulcer. Neurovascular reactions including warmth, vasospasm, pallor, mottling, gangrene, numbness of the extremities, cyanosis of the extremities, and neurovascular damage.

Metabolic: Elevated BUN, creatinine, and SGOT.

Musculoskeletal: Joint disorder, periostitis; exacerbation of arthritis; myoglobinuria; rhabdomyolysis.

Nervous System: Nervousness; tremors; dizziness; somnolence; confusion; anxiety; euphoria; transverse myelitis; seizures; coma. A syndrome manifested by a variety of CNS symptoms such as severe agitation with confusion, visual and auditory hallucinations, and a fear of impending death (Hoigne's syndrome), has been reported after administration of penicillin G procaine and, less commonly, after injection of the combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine. Other symptoms associated with this syndrome, such as psychosis, seizures, dizziness, tinnitus, cyanosis, palpitations, tachycardia, and/or abnormal perception in taste, also may occur.

Respiratory: Hypoxia; apnea; dyspnea.

Skin: Diaphoresis.

Special Senses: Blurred vision; blindness.

Urogenital: Neurogenic bladder; hematuria; proteinuria; renal failure; impotence; priapism.

OVERDOSAGE

Penicillin in overdosage has the potential to cause neuromuscular hyperirritability or convulsive seizures.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bicillin C-R and other antibacterial drugs, Bicillin C-R should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

This drug is indicated in the treatment of moderately severe infections due to penicillin-G-susceptible microorganisms that are susceptible to serum levels common to this particular dosage form. Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including susceptibility testing) and by clinical response.

Bicillin C-R is indicated in the treatment of the following in adults and pediatric patients:

Moderately severe to severe infections of the upper-respiratory tract, scarlet fever, erysipelas, and skin and soft-tissue infections due to susceptible streptococci.

NOTE: Streptococci in Groups A, C, G, H, L, and M are very sensitive to penicillin G. Other groups, including Group D (enterococci), are resistant. Penicillin G sodium or potassium is recommended for streptococcal infections with bacteremia.

Moderately severe pneumonia and otitis media due to susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae.

NOTE: Severe pneumonia, empyema, bacteremia, pericarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and arthritis of pneumococcal etiology are better treated with penicillin G sodium or potassium during the acute stage.

When high, sustained serum levels are required, penicillin G sodium or potassium, either IM or IV, should be used. This drug should not be used in the treatment of venereal diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhea, yaws, bejel, and pinta.

BICILLIN® CR 900/300 (penicillin G benzathine, penicillin G procraine)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BICILLIN CR 900/300 safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for BICILLIN CR 900/300.

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A previous hypersensitivity reaction to any penicillin or to procaine is a contraindication.

WARNINGS

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

The combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine should only be prescribed for the indications listed in this insert.

Anaphylaxis

SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS ON PENICILLIN THERAPY. THESE REACTIONS ARE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND/OR A HISTORY OF SENSITIVITY TO MULTIPLE ALLERGENS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED SEVERE REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH CEPHALOSPORINS. BEFORE INITIATING THERAPY WITH BICILLIN C-R CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE CONCERNING PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS OR OTHER ALLERGENS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, BICILLIN C-R SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE THERAPY INSTITUTED. SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.

Clostridium difficile associated with diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Bicillin C-R 900/300, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Method of Administration

Do not inject into or near an artery or nerve.

Injection into or near a nerve may result in permanent neurological damage.

Inadvertent intravascular administration, including inadvertent direct intra-arterial injection or injection immediately adjacent to arteries, of Bicillin C-R and other penicillin preparations has resulted in severe neurovascular damage, including transverse myelitis with permanent paralysis, gangrene requiring amputation of digits and more proximal portions of extremities, and necrosis and sloughing at and surrounding the injection site. Such severe effects have been reported following injections into the buttock, thigh, and deltoid areas. Other serious complications of suspected intravascular administration which have been reported include immediate pallor, mottling, or cyanosis of the extremity both distal and proximal to the injection site, followed by bleb formation; severe edema requiring anterior and/or posterior compartment fasciotomy in the lower extremity. The above-described severe effects and complications have most often occurred in infants and small children. Prompt consultation with an appropriate specialist is indicated if any evidence of compromise of the blood supply occurs at, proximal to, or distal to the site of injection.1-9 (See PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Do not inject intravenously or admix with other intravenous solutions. There have been reports of inadvertent intravenous administration of penicillin G benzathine which has been associated with cardiorespiratory arrest and death. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.)

Quadriceps femoris fibrosis and atrophy have been reported following repeated intramuscular injections of penicillin preparations into the anterolateral thigh.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Bicillin C-R 900/300 in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of a development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma.

Care should be taken to avoid intravenous or intra-arterial administration, or injection into or near major peripheral nerves or blood vessels, since such injections may produce neurovascular damage. (See WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

A small percentage of patients are sensitive to procaine. If there is a history of sensitivity, make the usual test: Inject intradermally 0.1 mL of a 1 to 2 percent procaine solution. Development of an erythema, wheal, flare, or eruption indicates procaine sensitivity. Sensitivity should be treated by the usual methods, including barbiturates, and procaine penicillin preparations should not be used. Antihistaminics appear beneficial in treatment of procaine reactions.

The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Constant observation of the patient is essential. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi appear during therapy, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.

Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy.

In prolonged therapy with penicillin, and particularly with high-dosage schedules, periodic evaluation of the renal and hematopoietic systems is recommended.

Information for Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Bicillin C-R 900/300 should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Bicillin C-R 900/300 is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Bicillin C-R 900/300 or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Laboratory Tests

In streptococcal infections, therapy must be sufficient to eliminate the organism; otherwise, the sequelae of streptococcal disease may occur. Cultures should be taken following completion of treatment to determine whether streptococci have been eradicated.

Drug Interactions

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Concurrent administration of penicillin and probenecid increases and prolongs serum penicillin levels by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution and slowing the rate of excretion by competitively inhibiting renal tubular secretion of penicillin.

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to penicillin G. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Soluble penicillin G is excreted in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine are administered to a nursing woman.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs.

Pediatric Use

(See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

As with other penicillins, untoward reactions of the sensitivity phenomena are likely to occur, particularly in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins or in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria.

The following have been reported with parenteral penicillin G:

General: Hypersensitivity reactions including the following: skin eruptions (maculopapular to exfoliative dermatitis), urticaria, laryngeal edema, fever, eosinophilia; other serum sickness-like reactions (including chills, fever, edema, arthralgia, and prostration); and anaphylaxis including shock and death. Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, penicillin G should be discontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to therapy with penicillin G. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.

Gastrointestinal: Pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS section.)

Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Neurologic: Neuropathy.

Urogenital: Nephropathy.

The following adverse events have been temporally associated with parenteral administrations of penicillin G benzathine, although a causal relationship has not necessarily been established:

Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including allergic vasculitis, pruritus, fatigue, asthenia, and pain; aggravation of existing disorder; headache.

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; hypotension; tachycardia; palpitations; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism; vasodilation; vasovagal reaction; cerebrovascular accident; syncope.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting; blood in stool; intestinal necrosis.

Hemic and Lymphatic: Lymphadenopathy.

Injection Site: Injection site reactions including pain, inflammation, lump, abscess, necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, cellulitis, hypersensitivity, atrophy, ecchymosis, and skin ulcer. Neurovascular reactions including warmth, vasospasm, pallor, mottling, gangrene, numbness of the extremities, cyanosis of the extremities, and neurovascular damage.

Metabolic: Elevated BUN, creatinine, and SGOT.

Musculoskeletal: Joint disorder; periostitis; exacerbation of arthritis; myoglobinuria; rhabdomyolysis.

Nervous System: Nervousness; tremors; dizziness; somnolence; confusion; anxiety; euphoria; transverse myelitis; seizures; coma. A syndrome manifested by a variety of CNS symptoms such as severe agitation with confusion, visual and auditory hallucinations, and a fear of impending death (Hoigne's syndrome), has been reported after administration of penicillin G procaine and, less commonly, after injection of the combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine. Other symptoms associated with this syndrome, such as psychosis, seizures, dizziness, tinnitus, cyanosis, palpitations, tachycardia, and/or abnormal perception in taste, also may occur.

Respiratory: Hypoxia; apnea; dyspnea.

Skin: Diaphoresis.

Special Senses: Blurred vision; blindness.

Urogenital: Neurogenic bladder; hematuria; proteinuria; renal failure; impotence; priapism.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bicillin C-R 900/300 and other antibacterial drugs, Bicillin C-R 900/300 should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Bicillin C-R 900/300 is indicated in the treatment of infections as described below that are susceptible to serum levels characteristic of this particular dosage form. Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including susceptibility testing) and by clinical response.

Bicillin C-R 900/300 is indicated in the treatment of the following in pediatric patients:

Moderately severe to severe infections of the upper-respiratory tract, scarlet fever, erysipelas, and skin and soft-tissue infections due to susceptible streptococci.

NOTE: Streptococci in Groups A, C, G, H, L, and M are very susceptible to penicillin G. Other groups, including Group D (enterococci), are resistant. Penicillin G sodium or potassium is recommended for streptococcal infections with bacteremia.

Moderately severe pneumonia and otitis media due to susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae.

NOTE: Severe pneumonia, empyema, bacteremia, pericarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and arthritis of pneumococcal etiology are better treated with penicillin G sodium or potassium during the acute stage.

When high, sustained serum levels are required, penicillin G sodium or potassium, either IM or IV, should be used. This drug should not be used in the treatment of venereal diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhea, yaws, bejel, and pinta.

BICILLIN® LA (penicillin G benzathine)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BICILLIN LA safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for BICILLIN LA.

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.

WARNINGS

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

Penicillin G benzathine should only be prescribed for the indications listed in this insert.

Anaphylaxis

SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS ON PENICILLIN THERAPY. THESE REACTIONS ARE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND/OR A HISTORY OF SENSITIVITY TO MULTIPLE ALLERGENS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED SEVERE REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH CEPHALOSPORINS. BEFORE INITIATING THERAPY WITH BICILLIN L-A, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE CONCERNING PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS, OR OTHER ALLERGENS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, BICILLIN L-A SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE THERAPY INSTITUTED. SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Bicillin L-A, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Method of Administration

Do not inject into or near an artery or nerve.

Injection into or near a nerve may result in permanent neurological damage.

Inadvertent intravascular administration, including inadvertent direct intra-arterial injection or injection immediately adjacent to arteries, of Bicillin L-A and other penicillin preparations has resulted in severe neurovascular damage, including transverse myelitis with permanent paralysis, gangrene requiring amputation of digits and more proximal portions of extremities, and necrosis and sloughing at and surrounding the injection site. Such severe effects have been reported following injections into the buttock, thigh, and deltoid areas. Other serious complications of suspected intravascular administration which have been reported include immediate pallor, mottling, or cyanosis of the extremity both distal and proximal to the injection site, followed by bleb formation; severe edema requiring anterior and/or posterior compartment fasciotomy in the lower extremity. The above-described severe effects and complications have most often occurred in infants and small children. Prompt consultation with an appropriate specialist is indicated if any evidence of compromise of the blood supply occurs at, proximal to, or distal to the site of injection.1-9 (See PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Do not inject intravenously or admix with other intravenous solutions. There have been reports of inadvertent intravenous administration of penicillin G benzathine which has been associated with cardiorespiratory arrest and death. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.)

Quadriceps femoris fibrosis and atrophy have been reported following repeated intramuscular injections of penicillin preparations into the anterolateral thigh.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Bicillin L-A in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of a development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma.

Care should be taken to avoid intravenous or intra-arterial administration, or injection into or near major peripheral nerves or blood vessels, since such injection may produce neurovascular damage. (See WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Prolonged use of antibiotics may promote the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. Should superinfection occur, appropriate measures should be taken.

Information for Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Bicillin L-A should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Bicillin L-A is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Bicillin L-A or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Laboratory Tests

In streptococcal infections, therapy must be sufficient to eliminate the organism; otherwise, the sequelae of streptococcal disease may occur. Cultures should be taken following completion of treatment to determine whether streptococci have been eradicated.

Drug Interactions

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Concurrent administration of penicillin and probenecid increases and prolongs serum penicillin levels by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution and slowing the rate of excretion by competitively inhibiting renal tubular secretion of penicillin.

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to penicillin G. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Soluble penicillin G is excreted in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillin G benzathine is administered to a nursing woman.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term animal studies have been conducted with this drug.

Pediatric Use

(See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of penicillin G benzathine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

As with other penicillins, untoward reactions of the sensitivity phenomena are likely to occur, particularly in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins or in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria.

As with other treatments for syphilis, the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction has been reported.

The following have been reported with parenteral penicillin G:

General: Hypersensitivity reactions including the following: skin eruptions (maculopapular to exfoliative dermatitis), urticaria, laryngeal edema, fever, eosinophilia; other serum sickness-like reactions (including chills, fever, edema, arthralgia, and prostration); and anaphylaxis including shock and death. Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, penicillin G should be discontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to therapy with penicillin G. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.

Gastrointestinal: Pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS section.)

Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Neurologic: Neuropathy.

Urogenital: Nephropathy.

The following adverse events have been temporally associated with parenteral administration of penicillin G benzathine:

Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including allergic vasculitis, pruritus, fatigue, asthenia, and pain; aggravation of existing disorder; headache.

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; hypotension; tachycardia; palpitations; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism; vasodilation; vasovagal reaction; cerebrovascular accident; syncope.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting; blood in stool; intestinal necrosis.

Hemic and Lymphatic: Lymphadenopathy.

Injection Site: Injection site reactions including pain, inflammation, lump, abscess, necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, cellulitis, hypersensitivity, atrophy, ecchymosis, and skin ulcer. Neurovascular reactions including warmth, vasospasm, pallor, mottling, gangrene, numbness of the extremities, cyanosis of the extremities, and neurovascular damage.

Metabolic: Elevated BUN, creatinine, and SGOT.

Musculoskeletal: Joint disorder; periostitis; exacerbation of arthritis; myoglobinuria; rhabdomyolysis.

Nervous System: Nervousness; tremors; dizziness; somnolence; confusion; anxiety; euphoria; transverse myelitis; seizures; coma. A syndrome manifested by a variety of CNS symptoms such as severe agitation with confusion, visual and auditory hallucinations, and a fear of impending death (Hoigne's syndrome), has been reported after administration of penicillin G procaine and, less commonly, after injection of the combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine. Other symptoms associated with this syndrome, such as psychosis, seizures, dizziness, tinnitus, cyanosis, palpitations, tachycardia, and/or abnormal perception in taste, also may occur.

Respiratory: Hypoxia; apnea; dyspnea.

Skin: Diaphoresis.

Special Senses: Blurred vision; blindness.

Urogenital: Neurogenic bladder; hematuria; proteinuria; renal failure; impotence; priapism.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bicillin L-A and other antibacterial drugs, Bicillin L-A should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is indicated in the treatment of infections due to penicillin-G-sensitive microorganisms that are susceptible to the low and very prolonged serum levels common to this particular dosage form. Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including sensitivity tests) and by clinical response.

The following infections will usually respond to adequate dosage of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine:

Mild-to-moderate infections of the upper-respiratory tract due to susceptible streptococci.

Venereal infections—Syphilis, yaws, bejel, and pinta.

Medical Conditions in which Penicillin G Benzathine Therapy is indicated as Prophylaxis:

Rheumatic fever and/or chorea—Prophylaxis with penicillin G benzathine has proven effective in preventing recurrence of these conditions. It has also been used as follow-up prophylactic therapy for rheumatic heart disease and acute glomerulonephritis.

BICILLIN® LA Pediatric (penicillin G benzathine)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BICILLIN LA Pediatric safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for BICILLIN LA Pediatric.

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.

WARNINGS

WARNING: NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS USE. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR ADMIX WITH OTHER INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INADVERTENT INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE WHICH HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIORESPIRATORY ARREST AND DEATH. Prior to administration of this drug, carefully read the WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections of the labeling.

Penicillin G benzathine should only be prescribed for the indications listed in this insert.

Anaphylaxis

SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS ON PENICILLIN THERAPY. THESE REACTIONS ARE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND/OR A HISTORY OF SENSITIVITY TO MULTIPLE ALLERGENS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED SEVERE REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH CEPHALOSPORINS. BEFORE INITIATING THERAPY WITH BICILLIN L-A, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE CONCERNING PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS, OR OTHER ALLERGENS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, BICILLIN L-A SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE THERAPY INSTITUTED. SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Bicillin L-A, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Method of Administration

Do not inject into or near an artery or nerve.

Injection into or near a nerve may result in permanent neurological damage.

Inadvertent intravascular administration, including inadvertent direct intra-arterial injection or injection immediately adjacent to arteries, of Bicillin L-A and other penicillin preparations has resulted in severe neurovascular damage, including transverse myelitis with permanent paralysis, gangrene requiring amputation of digits and more proximal portions of extremities, and necrosis and sloughing at and surrounding the injection site. Such severe effects have been reported following injections into the buttock, thigh, and deltoid areas. Other serious complications of suspected intravascular administration which have been reported include immediate pallor, mottling, or cyanosis of the extremity both distal and proximal to the injection site, followed by bleb formation; severe edema requiring anterior and/or posterior compartment fasciotomy in the lower extremity. The above-described severe effects and complications have most often occurred in infants and small children. Prompt consultation with an appropriate specialist is indicated if any evidence of compromise of the blood supply occurs at, proximal to, or distal to the site of injection.1-9 (See PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Do not inject intravenously or admix with other intravenous solutions. There have been reports of inadvertent intravenous administration of penicillin G benzathine which has been associated with cardiorespiratory arrest and death. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.)

Quadriceps femoris fibrosis and atrophy have been reported following repeated intramuscular injections of penicillin preparations into the anterolateral thigh.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Bicillin L-A in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of a development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma.

Care should be taken to avoid intravenous or intra-arterial administration, or injection into or near major peripheral nerves or blood vessels, since such injection may produce neurovascular damage. (See WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Prolonged use of antibiotics may promote the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. Should superinfection occur, appropriate measures should be taken.

Information for Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Bicillin L-A should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Bicillin L-A is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Bicillin L-A or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Laboratory Tests

In streptococcal infections, therapy must be sufficient to eliminate the organism; otherwise, the sequelae of streptococcal disease may occur. Cultures should be taken following completion of treatment to determine whether streptococci have been eradicated.

Drug Interactions

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Concurrent administration of penicillin and probenecid increases and prolongs serum penicillin levels by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution and slowing the rate of excretion by competitively inhibiting renal tubular secretion of penicillin.

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to penicillin G. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Soluble penicillin G is excreted in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillin G benzathine is administered to a nursing woman.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term animal studies have been conducted with this drug.

Pediatric Use

(See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.)

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of penicillin G benzathine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

As with other penicillins, untoward reactions of the sensitivity phenomena are likely to occur, particularly in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins or in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria.

As with other treatments for syphilis, the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction has been reported.

The following have been reported with parenteral penicillin G:

General: Hypersensitivity reactions including the following: skin eruptions (maculopapular to exfoliative dermatitis), urticaria, laryngeal edema, fever, eosinophilia; other serum sickness-like reactions (including chills, fever, edema, arthralgia, and prostration); and anaphylaxis including shock and death. Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, penicillin G should be discontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to therapy with penicillin G. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.

Gastrointestinal: Pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS section.)

Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Neurologic: Neuropathy.

Urogenital: Nephropathy.

The following adverse events have been temporally associated with parenteral administration of penicillin G benzathine:

Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including allergic vasculitis, pruritus, fatigue, asthenia, and pain; aggravation of existing disorder; headache.

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; hypotension; tachycardia; palpitations; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism; vasodilation; vasovagal reaction; cerebrovascular accident; syncope.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting; blood in stool; intestinal necrosis.

Hemic and Lymphatic: Lymphadenopathy.

Injection Site: Injection site reactions including pain, inflammation, lump, abscess, necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, cellulitis, hypersensitivity, atrophy, ecchymosis, and skin ulcer. Neurovascular reactions including warmth, vasospasm, pallor, mottling, gangrene, numbness of the extremities, cyanosis of the extremities, and neurovascular damage.

Metabolic: Elevated BUN, creatinine, and SGOT.

Musculoskeletal: Joint disorder; periostitis; exacerbation of arthritis; myoglobinuria; rhabdomyolysis.

Nervous System: Nervousness; tremors; dizziness; somnolence; confusion; anxiety; euphoria; transverse myelitis; seizures; coma. A syndrome manifested by a variety of CNS symptoms such as severe agitation with confusion, visual and auditory hallucinations, and a fear of impending death (Hoigne's syndrome), has been reported after administration of penicillin G procaine and, less commonly, after injection of the combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine. Other symptoms associated with this syndrome, such as psychosis, seizures, dizziness, tinnitus, cyanosis, palpitations, tachycardia, and/or abnormal perception in taste, also may occur.

Respiratory: Hypoxia; apnea; dyspnea.

Skin: Diaphoresis.

Special Senses: Blurred vision; blindness.

Urogenital: Neurogenic bladder; hematuria; proteinuria; renal failure; impotence; priapism.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bicillin L-A and other antibacterial drugs, Bicillin L-A should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is indicated in the treatment of infections due to penicillin-G-sensitive microorganisms that are susceptible to the low and very prolonged serum levels common to this particular dosage form. Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including sensitivity tests) and by clinical response.

The following infections will usually respond to adequate dosage of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine:

Mild-to-moderate infections of the upper-respiratory tract due to susceptible streptococci.

Venereal infections—Syphilis, yaws, bejel, and pinta.

Medical Conditions in which Penicillin G Benzathine Therapy is indicated as Prophylaxis:

Rheumatic fever and/or chorea—Prophylaxis with penicillin G benzathine has proven effective in preventing recurrence of these conditions. It has also been used as follow-up prophylactic therapy for rheumatic heart disease and acute glomerulonephritis.

CLEOCIN® HCl capsules (clindamycin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CLEOCIN HCl capsules safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for CLEOCIN HCl capsules.

WARNING

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CLEOCIN HCl and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficle.

Because CLEOCIN HCl therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CLEOCIN HCl is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin.

WARNINGS

See BOXED WARNING

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CLEOCIN HCl, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Anaphylactic and Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions

Anaphylactic shock and anaphylactic reactions have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including severe skin reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), some with fatal outcome, have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

In case of such an anaphylactic or severe hypersensitivity reaction, discontinue treatment permanently and institute appropriate therapy.

A careful inquiry should be made concerning previous sensitivities to drugs and other allergens.

Usage in Meningitis

Since clindamycin does not diffuse adequately into the cerebrospinal fluid, the drug should not be used in the treatment of meningitis.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.

CLEOCIN HCl should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

CLEOCIN HCl should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

The use of CLEOCIN HCl occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms—particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.

Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.

The 75 mg and 150 mg capsules contain FD&C yellow no. 5 (tartrazine), which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible individuals. Although the overall incidence of FD&C yellow no. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.

Prescribing CLEOCIN HCl in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including CLEOCIN HCl, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When CLEOCIN HCl is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by CLEOCIN HCl or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

During prolonged therapy, periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed.

Drug Interactions

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Clindamycin is metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A5, to the major metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide and minor metabolite N-desmethylclindamycin. Therefore inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may increase plasma concentrations of clindamycin and inducers of these isoenzymes may reduce plasma concentrations of clindamycin. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor for adverse reactions. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin, monitor for loss of effectiveness.

In vitro studies indicate that clindamycin does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 or CYP2D6 and only moderately inhibits CYP3A4.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative.

Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.6 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities.

Clindamycin should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Reproduction studies performed in rats and mice using oral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (3.2 and 1.6 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) or subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 250 mg/kg/day (1.3 and 0.7 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity.

Nursing Mothers

Clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk in the range of 0.7 to 3.8 mcg/mL. Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breastfed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

When CLEOCIN HCl is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years), appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly (>60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young and elderly subjects with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin.

Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile colitis

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (see BOXED WARNING). The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). Esophageal ulcer has been reported. An unpleasant or metallic taste has been reported after oral administration.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions.

Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy.

Severe skin reactions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, some with fatal outcome, have been reported (See WARNINGS). Cases of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction and hypersensitivity have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, angioedema and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported. (See Hypersensitivity Reactions.)

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.

Immune System: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) cases have been reported.

Musculoskeletal: Cases of polyarthritis have been reported.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.

Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the BOXED WARNING, before selecting clindamycin, the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis, and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.

Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.

Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CLEOCIN HCl and other antibacterial drugs, CLEOCIN HCl should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

CLEOCIN® Pediatric (clindamycin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CLEOCIN Pediatric safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for CLEOCIN Pediatric.

WARNING

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C.difficile.

Because clindamycin therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections. C.difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C.difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C.difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C.difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin.

WARNINGS

See BOXED WARNING.

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC (Clindamycin Palmitate HCL) , and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Anaphylactic and Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions

Anaphylactic shock and anaphylactic reactions have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including severe skin reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), some with fatal outcome, have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

In case of such an anaphylactic or severe hypersensitivity reaction, discontinue treatment permanently and institute appropriate therapy.

A careful inquiry should be made concerning previous sensitivities to drugs and other allergens.

Usage in Meningitis

Since clindamycin does not diffuse adequately into the cerebrospinal fluid, the drug should not be used in the treatment of meningitis.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.

CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC (clindamycin palmitate HCl) should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

The use of CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms-particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.

Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.

Prescribing CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

During prolonged therapy, periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed.

Drug Interactions

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Clindamycin is metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A5, to the major metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide and minor metabolite N-desmethylclindamycin. Therefore inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may increase plasma concentrations of clindamycin and inducers of these isoenzymes may reduce plasma concentrations of clindamycin. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor for adverse reactions. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin, monitor for loss of effectiveness.

In vitro studies indicate that clindamycin does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 or CYP2D6 and only moderately inhibits CYP3A4.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative.

Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.6 times the highest recommended adult human oral dose based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects

Clindamycin should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Reproduction studies performed in rats and mice using oral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (3.2 and 1.6 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) or subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 250 mg/kg/day (1.3 and 0.7 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity.

Nursing Mothers

Clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk in the range of 0.7 to 3.8 mcg/mL. Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breastfed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

When CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years), appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly (>60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young subjects (18–39 years) and elderly subjects (61–79 years) with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin.

Infections and infestations: Clostridium difficile colitis

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (see BOXED WARNING). The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). An unpleasant or metallic taste has been reported after oral administration.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Severe skin reactions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, some with fatal outcome, have been reported (See WARNINGS). Cases of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction and hypersensitivity have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, angioedema, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported. (See Hypersensitivity Reactions.)

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.

Immune system: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) cases have been reported.

Musculoskeletal: Cases of polyarthritis have been reported.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC (clindamycin palmitate HCl) is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.

Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the BOXED WARNING, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.

Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.

Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections. Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC and other antibacterial drugs, CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

CLEOCIN® Phosphate Injection (clindamycin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CLEOCIN Phosphate Injection safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for CLEOCIN Phosphate Injection.

WARNING

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

Because CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin.

WARNINGS

See BOXED WARNING.

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Anaphylactic and Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions

Anaphylactic shock and anaphylactic reactions have been reported (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including severe skin reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), some with fatal outcome, have been reported(see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

In case of such an anaphylactic or severe hypersensitivity reaction, discontinue treatment permanently and institute appropriate therapy.

A careful inquiry should be made concerning previous sensitivities to drugs and other allergens.

Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity in Pediatric Patients ("Gasping Syndrome")

This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The preservative benzyl alcohol has been associated with serious adverse events, including the "gasping syndrome", and death in pediatric patients. Although normal therapeutic doses of this product ordinarily deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the "gasping syndrome", the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known.

The risk of benzyl alcohol toxicity depends on the quantity administered and the liver and kidneys' capacity to detoxify the chemical. Premature and low birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity.

Usage in Meningitis

Since clindamycin does not diffuse adequately into the cerebrospinal fluid, the drug should not be used in the treatment of meningitis.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.

Certain infections may require incision and drainage or other indicated surgical procedures in addition to antibiotic therapy.

The use of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms-particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should not be injected intravenously undiluted as a bolus, but should be infused over at least 10–60 minutes as directed in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.

Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.

Prescribing CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

During prolonged therapy periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed.

Drug Interactions

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Clindamycin is metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A5, to the major metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide and minor metabolite N-desmethylclindamycin. Therefore, inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may increase plasma concentrations of clindamycin and inducers of these isoenzymes may reduce plasma concentrations of clindamycin. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor for adverse reactions. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin, monitor for loss of effectiveness.

In vitro studies indicate that clindamycin does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 or CYP2D6 and only moderately inhibits CYP3A4.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative.

Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.1 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities.

Clindamycin should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Reproduction studies performed in rats and mice using oral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (2.1 and 1.1 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) or subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 250 mg/kg/day (0.9 and 0.5 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution contains benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol can cross the placenta. See WARNINGS.

Nursing Mothers

Clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk in the range of 0.7 to 3.8 mcg/mL at dosages of 150 mg orally to 600 mg intravenously. Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breastfed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

When CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years) appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable.

Usage in Newborns and Infants

This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol has been associated with a fatal "Gasping Syndrome" in premature infants. See WARNINGS.

The potential for the toxic effect in the pediatric population from chemicals that may leach from the single dose premixed IV preparation in plastic has not been evaluated. See WARNINGS.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly (>60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young and elderly subjects with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin.

Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile colitis

Gastrointestinal: Antibiotic-associated colitis (see WARNINGS), pseudomembranous colitis, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). An unpleasant or metallic taste has been reported after intravenous administration of the higher doses of clindamycin phosphate.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported of all adverse reactions.

Severe skin reactions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, some with fatal outcome, have been reported (see WARNINGS). Cases of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction and hypersensitivity have also been reported (see WARNINGS).

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, angioedema and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported (see Hypersensitivity Reactions).

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.

Immune System: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) cases have been reported.

Local Reactions: Injection site irritation, pain, induration and sterile abscess have been reported after intramuscular injection and thrombophlebitis after intravenous infusion. Reactions can be minimized or avoided by giving deep intramuscular injections and avoiding prolonged use of indwelling intravenous catheters.

Musculoskeletal: Polyarthritis cases have been reported.

Cardiovascular: Cardiopulmonary arrest and hypotension have been reported following too rapid intravenous administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis, as described in the BOXED WARNING, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below:

Lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess caused by anaerobes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (except E. faecalis), and Staphylococcus aureus.

Skin and skin structure infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes.

Gynecological infections including endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection caused by susceptible anaerobes.

Intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess caused by susceptible anaerobic organisms.

Septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis), and susceptible anaerobes.

Bone and joint infections including acute hematogenous osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and as adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of chronic bone and joint infections due to susceptible organisms.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE and other antibacterial drugs, CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

CLEOCIN T® (clindamycin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CLEOCIN T safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for CLEOCIN T.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CLEOCIN T Topical Solution, CLEOCIN T Topical Gel and CLEOCIN T Topical Lotion are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin, a history of regional enteritis or ulcerative colitis, or a history of antibiotic-associated colitis.

WARNINGS

Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis which may result in patient death. Use of the topical formulation of clindamycin results in absorption of the antibiotic from the skin surface. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of topical and systemic clindamycin.

Studies indicate a toxin(s) produced by clostridia is one primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. Endoscopic examination may reveal pseudomembranous colitis. Stool culture for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically.

When significant diarrhea occurs, the drug should be discontinued. Large bowel endoscopy should be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

Antiperistaltic agents such as opiates and diphenoxylate with atropine may prolong and/or worsen the condition. Vancomycin has been found to be effective in the treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis produced by Clostridium difficile. The usual adult dosage is 500 milligrams to 2 grams of vancomycin orally per day in three to four divided doses administered for 7 to 10 days. Cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind vancomycin in vitro. If both a resin and vancomycin are to be administered concurrently, it may be advisable to separate the time of administration of each drug.

Diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis have been observed to begin up to several weeks following cessation of oral and parenteral therapy with clindamycin.


PRECAUTIONS

General

CLEOCIN T Topical Solution contains an alcohol base which will cause burning and irritation of the eye. In the event of accidental contact with sensitive surfaces (eye, abraded skin, mucous membranes), bathe with copious amounts of cool tap water. The solution has an unpleasant taste and caution should be exercised when applying medication around the mouth.

CLEOCIN T should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.

Drug Interactions

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities. There are no adequate studies in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Clindamycin should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether clindamycin is excreted in human milk following use of CLEOCIN T. However, orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk. Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breastfed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under the age of 12 have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies for CLEOCIN T did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In 18 clinical studies of various formulations of CLEOCIN T using placebo vehicle and/or active comparator drugs as controls, patients experienced a number of treatment emergent adverse dermatologic events [see table below].

Number of Patients Reporting Events
   Treatment
    Emergent
Adverse Event
Solution
n=553(%)
Gel
n=148(%)
Lotion
n=160(%)
# not recorded
*
of 126 subjects
Burning 62 (11) 15 (10) 17 (11)
Itching 36 ( 7) 15 (10) 17 (11)
Burning/Itching 60 (11) # ( – ) # ( – )
Dryness 105 (19) 34 (23) 29 (18)
Erythema 86 (16) 10 ( 7) 22 (14)
Oiliness/Oily Skin 8 ( 1) 26 (18) 12* (10)
Peeling 61 (11) # ( – ) 11 ( 7)

Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally.

Cases of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported as adverse reactions in patients treated with oral and parenteral formulations of clindamycin and rarely with topical clindamycin (see WARNINGS).

Abdominal pain gastrointestinal disturbances gram-negative folliculitis eye pain and contact dermatitis have also been reported in association with the use of topical formulations of clindamycin.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CLEOCIN T Topical Solution, CLEOCIN T Topical Gel and CLEOCIN T Topical Lotion are indicated in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In view of the potential for diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, the physician should consider whether other agents are more appropriate (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).

CLEOCIN® Vaginal Cream (clindamycin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to clindamycin, lincomycin, or any of the components of this vaginal cream. CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, is also contraindicated in individuals with a history of regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis, or a history of "antibiotic-associated" colitis.

WARNINGS

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of orally and parenterally administered clindamycin, as well as with topical (dermal and vaginal) formulations of clindamycin. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of clindamycin, even when administered by the vaginal route, because approximately 5% of the clindamycin dose is systemically absorbed from the vagina.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia.Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of "antibiotic-associated" colitis.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to discontinuation of the drug alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.

Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment.


PRECAUTIONS

General

CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, contains ingredients that will cause burning and irritation of the eye. In the event of accidental contact with the eye, rinse the eye with copious amounts of cool tap water.

The use of CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2% may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms in the vagina. In clinical studies involving 600 non-pregnant women who received treatment for 3 days, Candida albicans was detected, either symptomatically or by culture, in 8.8% of patients. In 9% of the patients, vaginitis was recorded. Inclinical studies involving 1325 non-pregnant women who received treatment for 7 days, Candida albicans was detected, either symptomatically or by culture, in 10.5% of patients. Vaginitis was recorded in 10.7% of the patients. In 180 pregnant women who received treatment for 7 days, Candida albicans was detected, either symptomatically or by culture, in 13.3% of patients. In 7.2% of the patients, vaginitis was recorded. Candida albicans, as reported here, includes the terms: vaginal moniliasis and moniliasis (body as a whole). Vaginitis includes the terms: vulvovaginal disorder, vulvovaginitis, vaginal discharge, trichomonal vaginitis, and vaginitis.

Information for the Patient

The patient should be instructed not to engage in vaginal intercourse, or use other vaginal products (such as tampons or douches) during treatment with this product.

The patient should also be advised that this cream contains mineral oil that may weaken latex or rubber products such as condoms or vaginal contraceptive diaphragms. Therefore, use of such products within 72 hours following treatment with CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, is not recommended.

Drug Interactions

Systemic clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential.

Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames test. Both tests were negative. Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (31 times the human exposure based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities.

Clindamycin vaginal cream should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed and the benefits outweigh the risks. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy.

CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2% has been studied in pregnant women during the second trimester. In women treated for seven days, abnormal labor was reported in 1.1% of patients who received clindamycin vaginal cream 2% compared with 0.5% of patients who received placebo.

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using oral and parenteral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (62 and 25 times, respectively, the maximum human exposure based on body surface area) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to clindamycin. Cleft palates were observed in fetuses from one mouse strain treated intraperitoneally with clindamycin at 200 mg/kg/day (about 10 times the recommended dose based on body surface area conversions). Since this effect was not observed in other mouse strains or in other species, the effect may be strain specific.

Nursing Mothers

Clindamycin has been detected in human milk after oral or parenteral administration. It is not known if clindamycin is excreted in human milk following the use of vaginally administered clindamycin phosphate.

Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breastfed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies for CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2% did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Clinical trials

Non-pregnant Women

In clinical trials involving non-pregnant women, 1.8% of 600 patients who received treatment with CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2% for 3 days and 2.7% of 1325 patients who received treatment for 7 days discontinued therapy due to drug-related adverse events. Medical events judged to be related, probably related, possibly related, or of unknown relationship to vaginally administered clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2%, were reported for 20.7% of the patients receiving treatment for 3 days and 21.3% of the patients receiving treatment for 7 days. Events occurring in ≥1% of patients receiving clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2% are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1 – Events Occurring in ≥1% of Non-pregnant Patients Receiving Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2%
Event CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream
3 Day
n=600
7 Day
n=1325
Urogenital
  Vaginal moniliasis 7.7 10.4
  Vulvovaginitis 6.0 4.4
  Vulvovaginal disorder 3.2 5.3
  Trichomonal vaginitis 0 1.3
Body as a Whole
  Moniliasis (body) 1.3 0.2

Other events occurring in <1% of the clindamycin vaginal cream 2% groups include:

Urogenital system: vaginal discharge, metrorrhagia, urinary tract infection, endometriosis, menstrual disorder, vaginitis/vaginal infection, and vaginal pain.

Body as a whole: localized abdominal pain, generalized abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, halitosis, headache, bacterial infection, inflammatory swelling, allergic reaction, and fungal infection.

Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal disorder.

Endocrine system: hyperthyroidism.

Central nervous system: dizziness and vertigo.

Respiratory system: epistaxis.

Skin: pruritus (non-application site), moniliasis, rash, maculopapular rash, erythema, and urticaria.

Special senses: taste perversion.

Pregnant Women

In a clinical trial involving pregnant women during the second trimester, 1.7% of 180 patients who received treatment for 7 days discontinued therapy due to drug-related adverse events. Medical events judged to be related, probably related, possibly related, or of unknown relationship to vaginally administered clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2%, were reported for 22.8% of pregnant patients. Events occurring in ≥1% of patients receiving either clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2% or placebo are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2 - Events Occurring in ≥1% of Pregnant Patients Receiving Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2% or Placebo
Event CLEOCIN
Vaginal Cream
Placebo
7 DAY
n=180
7 DAY
n=184
Urogenital
  Vaginal moniliasis 13.3 7.1
  Vulvovaginal disorder 6.7 7.1
  Abnormal labor 1.1 0.5
Body as a Whole
  Fungal infection 1.7 0
Skin
  Pruritus, non-application site 1.1 0

Other events occurring in <1% of the clindamycin vaginal cream 2% group include:

Urogenital system: dysuria, metrorrhagia, vaginal pain, and trichomonal vaginitis.

Body as a whole: upper respiratory infection.

Skin: pruritus (topical application site) and erythema.

Post-marketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

In the post-marketing period, there have been case reports of pseudomembranous colitis with the use of clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream.

Other clindamycin formulations

Clindamycin vaginal cream affords minimal peak serum levels and systemic exposure (AUCs) of clindamycin compared to 100 mg oral clindamycin dosing. Although these lower levels of exposure are less likely to produce the common reactions seen with oral clindamycin, the possibility of these and other reactions cannot be excluded presently. Data from well-controlled trials directly comparing clindamycin administered orally to clindamycin administered vaginally are not available.

The following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported with the oral or parenteral use of clindamycin:

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. (See WARNINGS.)

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia), eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia have been reported. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of these reports.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported of all adverse reactions. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. A few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, is indicated in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (formerly referred to as Haemophilus vaginitis, Gardnerella vaginitis, nonspecific vaginitis, Corynebacterium vaginitis, or anaerobic vaginosis). CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, can be used to treat non-pregnant women and pregnant women during the second and third trimester. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)

NOTE: For purposes of this indication, a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually defined by the presence of a homogeneous vaginal discharge that (a) has a pH of greater than 4.5, (b) emits a "fishy" amine odor when mixed with a 10% KOH solution, and (c) contains clue cells on microscopic examination. Gram's stain results consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis include (a) markedly reduced or absent Lactobacillus morphology, (b) predominance of Gardnerella morphotype, and (c) absent or few white blood cells.

Other pathogens commonly associated with vulvovaginitis, eg, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, and Herpes simplex virus should be ruled out.

CLEOCIN® Vaginal Ovules (clindamycin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to clindamycin, lincomycin, or any of the components of this vaginal suppository. CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are also contraindicated in individuals with a history of regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis, or a history of "antibiotic-associated" colitis.

WARNINGS

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis, which may end fatally. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of orally and parenterally administered clindamycin, as well as with topical (dermal and vaginal) formulations of clindamycin. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules, because approximately 30% of the clindamycin dose is systemically absorbed from the vagina.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of "antibiotic-associated" colitis.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to discontinuation of the drug alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.

Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment.


PRECAUTIONS

General

The use of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms in the vagina. In clinical studies using CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules, treatment-related moniliasis was reported in 2.7% and vaginitis in 3.6% of 589 nonpregnant women. Moniliasis, as reported here, includes the terms: vaginal or nonvaginal moniliasis and fungal infection. Vaginitis includes the terms: vulvovaginal disorder, vaginal discharge, and vaginitis/vaginal infection.

Information for the Patient

The patient should be instructed not to engage in vaginal intercourse or use other vaginal products (such as tampons or douches) during treatment with this product.

The patient should also be advised that these suppositories use an oleaginous base that may weaken latex or rubber products such as condoms or vaginal contraceptive diaphragms. Therefore, the use of such products within 72 hours following treatment with CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules is not recommended.

Drug Interactions

Systemic clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames test. Both tests were negative. Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (31 times the human exposure based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities.

Clindamycin vaginal ovules should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed and the benefits outweigh the risks. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy.

CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream, 2%, has been studied in pregnant women during the second trimester. In women treated for 7 days, abnormal labor was reported more frequently in patients who received CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream compared to those receiving placebo (1.1% vs. 0.5% of patients, respectively).

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using oral and parenteral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (62 and 25 times, respectively, the maximum human dose based on body surface area) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to clindamycin. Cleft palates were observed in fetuses from one mouse strain treated intraperitoneally with clindamycin at 200 mg/kg/day (about 10 times the recommended dose based on body surface area conversions). Since this effect was not observed in other mouse strains or in other species, the effect may be strain specific.

Nursing Mothers

Clindamycin has been detected in human milk after oral or parenteral administration. It is not known if clindamycin is excreted in human milk following the use of vaginally administered clindamycin phosphate.

Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breastfed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in post-menarchal females have been established on the extrapolation of clinical trial data from adult women. When a post-menarchal adolescent presents to a health professional with bacterial vaginosis symptoms, a careful evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases and other risk factors for bacterial vaginosis should be considered. The safety and efficacy of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pre-menarchal females have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Clinical Trials

In clinical trials, 3 (0.5%) of 589 nonpregnant women who received treatment with CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules discontinued therapy due to drug-related adverse events. Adverse events judged to have a reasonable possibility of having been caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal suppositories were reported for 10.5% of patients. Events reported by 1% or more of patients receiving CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules were as follows:

Urogenital system: Vulvovaginal disorder (3.4%), vaginal pain (1.9%), and vaginal moniliasis (1.5%).

Body as a whole: Fungal infection (1.0%).

Other events reported by <1% of patients included:

Urogenital system: Menstrual disorder, dysuria, pyelonephritis, vaginal discharge, and vaginitis/vaginal infection.

Body as a whole: Abdominal cramps, localized abdominal pain, fever, flank pain, generalized pain, headache, localized edema, and moniliasis.

Digestive system: Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

Skin: Nonapplication-site pruritis, rash, application-site pain, and application-site pruritis.

Other clindamycin formulations

The overall systemic exposure to clindamycin from CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules is substantially lower than the systemic exposure from therapeutic doses of oral clindamycin hydrochloride (two-fold to 20-fold lower) or parenteral clindamycin phosphate (40-fold to 50-fold lower). (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.) Although these lower levels of exposure are less likely to produce the common reactions seen with oral or parenteral clindamycin, the possibility of these and other reactions cannot be excluded.

The following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported with the oral or parenteral use of clindamycin and may also occur following administration of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules:

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pseudomembranous colitis. (See WARNINGS.)

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia), eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia have been reported. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of these reports.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported of all adverse reactions. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. A few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

There have been reports of pseudomembranous colitis following the administration of clindamycin vaginal cream.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are indicated for 3-day treatment of bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant women. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pregnant women.

NOTE: For purposes of this indication, a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually defined by the presence of a homogeneous vaginal discharge that (a) has a pH of greater than 4.5, (b) emits a "fishy" amine odor when mixed with a 10% KOH solution, and (c) contains clue cells on microscopic examination. Gram's stain results consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis include (a) markedly reduced or absent Lactobacillus morphology, (b) predominance of Gardnerella morphotype, and (c) absent or few white blood cells.

Other pathogens commonly associated with vulvovaginitis, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, and herpes simplex virus, should be ruled out.

DIFLUCAN® (fluconazole)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use DIFLUCAN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for DIFLUCAN.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

DIFLUCAN (fluconazole) is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to fluconazole or to any of its excipients. There is no information regarding cross-hypersensitivity between fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents. Caution should be used in prescribing DIFLUCAN to patients with hypersensitivity to other azoles. Coadministration of terfenadine is contraindicated in patients receiving DIFLUCAN (fluconazole) at multiple doses of 400 mg/day or higher based upon results of a multiple dose interaction study. Coadministration of other drugs known to prolong the QT interval and which are metabolized via the enzyme CYP3A4 such as cisapride, astemizole, erythromycin, pimozide, and quinidine are contraindicated in patients receiving fluconazole. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies and PRECAUTIONS.)

WARNINGS

(1) Hepatic injury: DIFLUCAN should be administered with caution to patients with liver dysfunction. DIFLUCAN has been associated with rare cases of serious hepatic toxicity, including fatalities primarily in patients with serious underlying medical conditions. In cases of DIFLUCAN-associated hepatotoxicity, no obvious relationship to total daily dose, duration of therapy, sex, or age of the patient has been observed. DIFLUCAN hepatotoxicity has usually, but not always, been reversible on discontinuation of therapy. Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during DIFLUCAN therapy should be monitored for the development of more severe hepatic injury. DIFLUCAN should be discontinued if clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop that may be attributable to DIFLUCAN.

(2) Anaphylaxis: In rare cases, anaphylaxis has been reported.

(3) Dermatologic: Exfoliative skin disorders during treatment with DIFLUCAN have been reported. Fatal outcomes have been reported in patients with serious underlying diseases. Patients with deep seated fungal infections who develop rashes during treatment with DIFLUCAN should be monitored closely and the drug discontinued if lesions progress. Fluconazole should be discontinued in patients treated for superficial fungal infection who develop a rash that may be attributed to fluconazole.

(4) Potential for Fetal Harm

There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical trials of DIFLUCAN in pregnant women. Case reports describe a pattern of distinct congenital anomalies in infants exposed in utero to high dose maternal fluconazole (400–800 mg/day) during most or all of the first trimester. These reported anomalies are similar to those seen in animal studies. If DIFLUCAN is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking the drug, the patient should be informed of the potential hazard to the fetus. Effective contraceptive measures should be considered in women of child-bearing potential who are being treated with DIFLUCAN 400 to 800 mg/day and should continue throughout the treatment period and for approximately 1 week (5 to 6 half-lives) after the final dose. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities in infants whose mothers were treated with 150 mg of fluconazole as a single or repeated dose in the first trimester, but these epidemiological studies have limitations and these findings have not been confirmed in controlled clinical trials (See PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy.)


PRECAUTIONS

General

Some azoles, including fluconazole, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. Fluconazole causes QT prolongation via the inhibition of Rectifier Potassium Channel current (Ikr). The QT prolongation caused by other medicinal products (such as amiodarone) may be amplified via the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. (See PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions.) During post-marketing surveillance, there have been rare cases of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes in patients taking fluconazole. Most of these reports involved seriously ill patients with multiple confounding risk factors, such as structural heart disease, electrolyte abnormalities, and concomitant medications that may have been contributory. Patients with hypokalemia and advanced cardiac failure are at an increased risk for the occurrence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes.

Fluconazole should be administered with caution to patients with these potentially proarrhythmic conditions.

Concomitant use of fluconazole and erythromycin has the potential to increase the risk of cardiotoxicity (prolonged QT interval, torsade de pointes) and consequently sudden heart death. This combination should be avoided.

Fluconazole should be administered with caution to patients with renal dysfunction.

Fluconazole is a potent CYP2C9 inhibitor and a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Fluconazole treated-patients who are concomitantly treated with drugs with a narrow therapeutic window metabolized through CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 should be monitored.

DIFLUCAN Powder for Oral Suspension contains sucrose and should not be used in patients with hereditary fructose, glucose/galactose malabsorption, and sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.

When driving vehicles or operating machines, it should be taken into account that occasionally dizziness or seizures may occur.

Single Dose

The convenience and efficacy of the single dose oral tablet of fluconazole regimen for the treatment of vaginal yeast infections should be weighed against the acceptability of a higher incidence of drug related adverse events with DIFLUCAN (26%) versus intravaginal agents (16%) in U.S. comparative clinical studies. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.)

Drug Interactions

(See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies and CONTRAINDICATIONS.) DIFLUCAN is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2C9 and 2C19, and a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4. In addition to the observed /documented interactions mentioned below, there is a risk of increased plasma concentration of other compounds metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 coadministered with fluconazole. Therefore, caution should be exercised when using these combinations and the patients should be carefully monitored. The enzyme inhibiting effect of fluconazole persists 4 to 5 days after discontinuation of fluconazole treatment due to the long half-life of fluconazole. Clinically or potentially significant drug interactions between DIFLUCAN and the following agents/classes have been observed. These are described in greater detail below:

Oral hypoglycemics
Coumarin-type anticoagulants
Phenytoin
Cyclosporine
Rifampin
Theophylline
Terfenadine
Cisapride
Astemizole
Rifabutin
Voriconazole
Tacrolimus
Short-acting benzodiazepines
Tofacitinib
Triazolam
Oral Contraceptives
Pimozide
Quinidine
Hydrochlorothiazide
Alfentanil
Amiodarone
Amitriptyline, nortriptyline
Amphotericin B
Azithromycin
Carbamazepine
Calcium Channel Blockers
Celecoxib
Cyclophosphamide
Fentanyl
Halofantrine
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Losartan
Methadone
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Prednisone
Saquinavir
Sirolimus
Vinca Alkaloids
Vitamin A
Zidovudine

Oral hypoglycemics

Clinically significant hypoglycemia may be precipitated by the use of DIFLUCAN with oral hypoglycemic agents; one fatality has been reported from hypoglycemia in association with combined DIFLUCAN and glyburide use. DIFLUCAN reduces the metabolism of tolbutamide, glyburide, and glipizide and increases the plasma concentration of these agents. When DIFLUCAN is used concomitantly with these or other sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents, blood glucose concentrations should be carefully monitored and the dose of the sulfonylurea should be adjusted as necessary. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Coumarin-type anticoagulants

Prothrombin time may be increased in patients receiving concomitant DIFLUCAN and coumarin-type anticoagulants. In post-marketing experience, as with other azole antifungals, bleeding events (bruising, epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, and melena) have been reported in association with increases in prothrombin time in patients receiving fluconazole concurrently with warfarin. Careful monitoring of prothrombin time in patients receiving DIFLUCAN and coumarin-type anticoagulants is recommended. Dose adjustment of warfarin may be necessary. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Phenytoin

DIFLUCAN increases the plasma concentrations of phenytoin. Careful monitoring of phenytoin concentrations in patients receiving DIFLUCAN and phenytoin is recommended. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Cyclosporine

DIFLUCAN significantly increases cyclosporine levels in renal transplant patients with or without renal impairment. Careful monitoring of cyclosporine concentrations and serum creatinine is recommended in patients receiving DIFLUCAN and cyclosporine. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies). This combination may be used by reducing the dosage of cyclosporine depending on cyclosporine concentration.

Rifampin

Rifampin enhances the metabolism of concurrently administered DIFLUCAN. Depending on clinical circumstances, consideration should be given to increasing the dose of DIFLUCAN when it is administered with rifampin. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Theophylline

DIFLUCAN increases the serum concentrations of theophylline. Careful monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations in patients receiving DIFLUCAN and theophylline is recommended. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Terfenadine

Because of the occurrence of serious cardiac dysrhythmias secondary to prolongation of the QTc interval in patients receiving azole antifungals in conjunction with terfenadine, interaction studies have been performed. One study at a 200 mg daily dose of fluconazole failed to demonstrate a prolongation in QTc interval. Another study at a 400 mg and 800 mg daily dose of fluconazole demonstrated that DIFLUCAN taken in doses of 400 mg/ day or greater significantly increases plasma levels of terfenadine when taken concomitantly. The combined use of fluconazole at doses of 400 mg or greater with terfenadine is contraindicated. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.) The coadministration of fluconazole at doses lower than 400 mg/day with terfenadine should be carefully monitored.

Cisapride

There have been reports of cardiac events, including torsade de pointes, in patients to whom fluconazole and cisapride were coadministered. A controlled study found that concomitant treatment with fluconazole 200 mg once daily and cisapride 20 mg four times a day yielded a significant increase in cisapride plasma levels and prolongation of QTc interval. The combined use of fluconazole with cisapride is contraindicated. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Astemizole

Concomitant administration of fluconazole with astemizole may decrease the clearance of astemizole. Resulting increased plasma concentrations of astemizole can lead to QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsade de pointes. Coadministration of fluconazole and astemizole is contraindicated.

Rifabutin

There have been reports that an interaction exists when fluconazole is administered concomitantly with rifabutin, leading to increased serum levels of rifabutin up to 80%. There have been reports of uveitis in patients to whom fluconazole and rifabutin were coadministered. Patients receiving rifabutin and fluconazole concomitantly should be carefully monitored. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Voriconazole

Avoid concomitant administration of voriconazole and fluconazole. Monitoring for adverse events and toxicity related to voriconazole is recommended; especially, if voriconazole is started within 24 h after the last dose of fluconazole. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Tacrolimus

Fluconazole may increase the serum concentrations of orally administered tacrolimus up to 5 times due to inhibition of tacrolimus metabolism through CYP3A4 in the intestines. No significant pharmacokinetic changes have been observed when tacrolimus is given intravenously. Increased tacrolimus levels have been associated with nephrotoxicity. Dosage of orally administered tacrolimus should be decreased depending on tacrolimus concentration. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Short-acting Benzodiazepines

Following oral administration of midazolam, fluconazole resulted in substantial increases in midazolam concentrations and psychomotor effects. This effect on midazolam appears to be more pronounced following oral administration of fluconazole than with fluconazole administered intravenously. If short-acting benzodiazepines, which are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, are concomitantly administered with fluconazole, consideration should be given to decreasing the benzodiazepine dosage, and the patients should be appropriately monitored. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Tofacitinib

Systemic exposure to tofacitinib is increased when tofacitinib is coadministered with fluconazole, a combined moderate CYP3A4 and potent CYP2C19 inhibitor. Reduce the dose of tofacitinib when given concomitantly with fluconazole (i.e., from 5 mg twice daily to 5 mg once daily as instructed in the XELJANZ® [tofacitinib] label). (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interaction Studies.)

Triazolam

Fluconazole increases the AUC of triazolam (single dose) by approximately 50%, Cmax by 20% to 32%, and increases t½ by 25% to 50 % due to the inhibition of metabolism of triazolam. Dosage adjustments of triazolam may be necessary.

Oral contraceptives

Two pharmacokinetic studies with a combined oral contraceptive have been performed using multiple doses of fluconazole. There were no relevant effects on hormone level in the 50 mg fluconazole study, while at 200 mg daily, the AUCs of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were increased 40% and 24%, respectively. Thus, multiple-dose use of fluconazole at these doses is unlikely to have an effect on the efficacy of the combined oral contraceptive.

Pimozide

Although not studied in vitro or in vivo, concomitant administration of fluconazole with pimozide may result in inhibition of pimozide metabolism. Increased pimozide plasma concentrations can lead to QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsade de pointes. Coadministration of fluconazole and pimozide is contraindicated.

Quinidine

Although not studied in vitro or in vivo, concomitant administration of fluconazole with quinidine may result in inhibition of quinidine metabolism. Use of quinidine has been associated with QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsade de pointes. Coadministration of fluconazole and quinidine is contraindicated. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.)

Hydrochlorothiazide

In a pharmacokinetic interaction study, coadministration of multiple dose hydrochlorothiazide to healthy volunteers receiving fluconazole increased plasma concentrations of fluconazole by 40%. An effect of this magnitude should not necessitate a change in the fluconazole dose regimen in subjects receiving concomitant diuretics.

Alfentanil

A study observed a reduction in clearance and distribution volume as well as prolongation of t½ of alfentanil following concomitant treatment with fluconazole. A possible mechanism of action is fluconazole's inhibition of CYP3A4. Dosage adjustment of alfentanil may be necessary.

Amiodarone

Concomitant administration of fluconazole with amiodarone may increase QT prolongation. Caution must be exercised if the concomitant use of fluconazole and amiodarone is necessary, notably with high-dose fluconazole (800 mg).

Amitriptyline, nortriptyline

Fluconazole increases the effect of amitriptyline and nortriptyline. 5-Nortriptyline and/or S-amitriptyline may be measured at initiation of the combination therapy and after 1 week. Dosage of amitriptyline/nortriptyline should be adjusted, if necessary.

Amphotericin B

Concurrent administration of fluconazole and amphotericin B in infected normal and immunosuppressed mice showed the following results: a small additive antifungal effect in systemic infection with Candida albicans, no interaction in intracranial infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, and antagonism of the two drugs in systemic infection with A. fumigatus. The clinical significance of results obtained in these studies is unknown.

Azithromycin

An open-label, randomized, three-way crossover study in 18 healthy subjects assessed the effect of a single 1200 mg oral dose of azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of a single 800 mg oral dose of fluconazole as well as the effects of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin. There was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between fluconazole and azithromycin.

Carbamazepine

Fluconazole inhibits the metabolism of carbamazepine and an increase in serum carbamazepine of 30% has been observed. There is a risk of developing carbamazepine toxicity. Dosage adjustment of carbamazepine may be necessary depending on concentration measurements/effect.

Calcium channel blockers

Certain calcium channel antagonists (nifedipine, isradipine, amlodipine, verapamil, and felodipine) are metabolized by CYP3A4. Fluconazole has the potential to increase the systemic exposure of the calcium channel antagonists. Frequent monitoring for adverse events is recommended.

Celecoxib

During concomitant treatment with fluconazole (200 mg daily) and celecoxib (200 mg), the celecoxib Cmax and AUC increased by 68% and 134%, respectively. Half of the celecoxib dose may be necessary when combined with fluconazole.

Cyclophosphamide

Combination therapy with cyclophosphamide and fluconazole results in an increase in serum bilirubin and serum creatinine. The combination may be used while taking increased consideration to the risk of increased serum bilirubin and serum creatinine.

Fentanyl

One fatal case of possible fentanyl-fluconazole interaction was reported. The author judged that the patient died from fentanyl intoxication. Furthermore, in a randomized crossover study with 12 healthy volunteers, it was shown that fluconazole delayed the elimination of fentanyl significantly. Elevated fentanyl concentration may lead to respiratory depression.

Halofantrine

Fluconazole can increase halofantrine plasma concentration due to an inhibitory effect on CYP3A4.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis increases when fluconazole is coadministered with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors metabolized through CYP3A4, such as atorvastatin and simvastatin, or through CYP2C9, such as fluvastatin. If concomitant therapy is necessary, the patient should be observed for symptoms of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis and creatinine kinase should be monitored. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be discontinued if a marked increase in creatinine kinase is observed or myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is diagnosed or suspected.

Losartan

Fluconazole inhibits the metabolism of losartan to its active metabolite (E-31 74) which is responsible for most of the angiotensin Il-receptor antagonism which occurs during treatment with losartan. Patients should have their blood pressure monitored continuously.

Methadone

Fluconazole may enhance the serum concentration of methadone. Dosage adjustment of methadone may be necessary.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

The Cmax and AUC of flurbiprofen were increased by 23% and 81%, respectively, when coadministered with fluconazole compared to administration of flurbiprofen alone. Similarly, the Cmax and AUC of the pharmacologically active isomer [S-(+)-ibuprofen] were increased by 15% and 82%, respectively, when fluconazole was coadministered with racemic ibuprofen (400 mg) compared to administration of racemic ibuprofen alone.

Although not specifically studied, fluconazole has the potential to increase the systemic exposure of other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are metabolized by CYP2C9 (e.g., naproxen, lornoxicam, meloxicam, diclofenac). Frequent monitoring for adverse events and toxicity related to NSAIDs is recommended. Adjustment of dosage of NSAIDs may be needed.

Prednisone

There was a case report that a liver-transplanted patient treated with prednisone developed acute adrenal cortex insufficiency when a 3 month therapy with fluconazole was discontinued. The discontinuation of fluconazole presumably caused an enhanced CYP3A4 activity which led to increased metabolism of prednisone. Patients on long-term treatment with fluconazole and prednisone should be carefully monitored for adrenal cortex insufficiency when fluconazole is discontinued.

Saquinavir

Fluconazole increases the AUC of saquinavir by approximately 50%, Cmax by approximately 55%, and decreases the clearance of saquinavir by approximately 50% due to inhibition of saquinavir's hepatic metabolism by CYP3A4 and inhibition of P-glycoprotein. Dosage adjustment of saquinavir may be necessary.

Sirolimus

Fluconazole increases plasma concentrations of sirolimus presumably by inhibiting the metabolism of sirolimus via CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. This combination may be used with a dosage adjustment of sirolimus depending on the effect/concentration measurements.

Vinca alkaloids

Although not studied, fluconazole may increase the plasma levels of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) and lead to neurotoxicity, which is possibly due to an inhibitory effect on CYP3A4.

Vitamin A

Based on a case report in one patient receiving combination therapy with all-trans-retinoid acid (an acid form of vitamin A) and fluconazole, central nervous system (CNS) related undesirable effects have developed in the form of pseudotumor cerebri, which disappeared after discontinuation of fluconazole treatment. This combination may be used but the incidence of CNS related undesirable effects should be borne in mind.

Zidovudine

Fluconazole increases the Cmax and AUC of zidovudine by 84% and 74%, respectively, due to an approximately 45% decrease in oral zidovudine clearance. The half-life of zidovudine was likewise prolonged by approximately 128% following combination therapy with fluconazole. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the development of zidovudine-related adverse reactions. Dosage reduction of zidovudine may be considered.

Physicians should be aware that interaction studies with medications other than those listed in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section have not been conducted, but such interactions may occur.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Fluconazole showed no evidence of carcinogenic potential in mice and rats treated orally for 24 months at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 to 7 times the recommended human dose). Male rats treated with 5 and 10 mg/kg/day had an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas.

Fluconazole, with or without metabolic activation, was negative in tests for mutagenicity in four strains of S. typhimurium, and in the mouse lymphoma L5178Y system. Cytogenetic studies in vivo (murine bone marrow cells, following oral administration of fluconazole) and in vitro (human lymphocytes exposed to fluconazole at 1000 mcg/mL) showed no evidence of chromosomal mutations.

Fluconazole did not affect the fertility of male or female rats treated orally with daily doses of 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 20 mg/kg or with parenteral doses of 5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 75 mg/kg, although the onset of parturition was slightly delayed at 20 mg/kg PO. In an intravenous perinatal study in rats at 5 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg, dystocia and prolongation of parturition were observed in a few dams at 20 mg/kg (approximately 5 to 15 times the recommended human dose) and 40 mg/kg, but not at 5 mg/kg. The disturbances in parturition were reflected by a slight increase in the number of still born pups and decrease of neonatal survival at these dose levels. The effects on parturition in rats are consistent with the species specific estrogen-lowering property produced by high doses of fluconazole. Such a hormone change has not been observed in women treated with fluconazole. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.)

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Potential for Fetal Harm: Use in pregnancy should be avoided except in patients with severe or potentially life-threatening fungal infections in whom fluconazole may be used if the anticipated benefit outweighs the possible risk to the fetus. A few published case reports describe a pattern of distinct congenital anomalies in infants exposed in utero to high dose maternal fluconazole (400–800 mg/day) during most or all of the first trimester. These reported anomalies are similar to those seen in animal studies. Effective contraceptive measures should be considered in women of child-bearing potential who are being treated with DIFLUCAN 400–800 mg/day and should continue throughout the treatment period and for approximately 1 week (5 to 6 half-lives) after the final dose. If DIFLUCAN is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking the drug, the patient should be informed of the potential hazard to the fetus. Spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities have been suggested as potential risks associated with 150 mg of fluconazole as a single or repeated dose in the first trimester of pregnancy based on retrospective epidemiological studies. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of DIFLUCAN in pregnant women. (See WARNINGS: Use in Pregnancy.)

Human Data

Case reports describe a distinctive and rare pattern of birth defects among infants whose mothers received high-dose (400 mg/day - 800 mg/day) fluconazole during most or all of the first trimester of pregnancy. The features seen in these infants include brachycephaly, abnormal facies, abnormal calvarial development, cleft palate, femoral bowing, thin ribs and long bones, arthrogryposis, and congenital heart disease. These effects are similar to those seen in animal studies.

Epidemiological studies suggest a potential risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities in infants whose mothers were treated with 150 mg of fluconazole as a single or repeated dose in the first trimester, but these epidemiological studies have limitations and these findings have not been confirmed in controlled clinical trials.

Animal Data

Fluconazole was administered orally to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis in two studies at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg and at 5, 25, and 75 mg/kg, respectively. Maternal weight gain was impaired at all dose levels (approximately 0.25 to 4 times the 400 mg clinical dose based on body surface area [BSA] comparison), and abortions occurred at 75 mg/kg (approximately 4 times the 400 mg clinical dose based on BSA); no adverse fetal effects were observed.

In several studies in which pregnant rats received fluconazole orally during organogenesis, maternal weight gain was impaired and placental weights were increased at 25 mg/kg. There were no fetal effects at 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg; increases in fetal anatomical variants (supernumerary ribs, renal pelvis dilation) and delays in ossification were observed at 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg and higher doses. At doses ranging from 80 to 320 mg/kg (approximately 2 to 8 times the 400 mg clinical dose based on BSA), embryolethality in rats was increased and fetal abnormalities included wavy ribs, cleft palate, and abnormal craniofacial ossification. These effects are consistent with the inhibition of estrogen synthesis in rats and may be a result of known effects of lowered estrogen on pregnancy, organogenesis, and parturition.

Nursing Mothers

Fluconazole is secreted in human milk at concentrations similar to maternal plasma concentrations. Caution should be exercised when DIFLUCAN is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

An open-label, randomized, controlled trial has shown DIFLUCAN to be effective in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in children 6 months to 13 years of age. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)

The use of DIFLUCAN in children with cryptococcal meningitis, Candida esophagitis, or systemic Candida infections is supported by the efficacy shown for these indications in adults and by the results from several small noncomparative pediatric clinical studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies in children (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) have established a dose proportionality between children and adults. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

In a noncomparative study of children with serious systemic fungal infections, most of which were candidemia, the effectiveness of DIFLUCAN was similar to that reported for the treatment of candidemia in adults. Of 17 subjects with culture-confirmed candidemia, 11 of 14 (79%) with baseline symptoms (3 were asymptomatic) had a clinical cure; 13/15 (87%) of evaluable patients had a mycologic cure at the end of treatment but two of these patients relapsed at 10 and 18 days, respectively, following cessation of therapy.

The efficacy of DIFLUCAN for the suppression of cryptococcal meningitis was successful in 4 of 5 children treated in a compassionate-use study of fluconazole for the treatment of life-threatening or serious mycosis. There is no information regarding the efficacy of fluconazole for primary treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in children.

The safety profile of DIFLUCAN in children has been studied in 577 children ages 1 day to 17 years who received doses ranging from 1 to 15 mg/kg/day for 1 to 1,616 days. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)

Efficacy of DIFLUCAN has not been established in infants less than 6 months of age. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.) A small number of patients (29) ranging in age from 1 day to 6 months have been treated safely with DIFLUCAN.

Geriatric Use

In non-AIDS patients, side effects possibly related to fluconazole treatment were reported in fewer patients aged 65 and older (9%, n =339) than for younger patients (14%, n=2240). However, there was no consistent difference between the older and younger patients with respect to individual side effects. Of the most frequently reported (>1%) side effects, rash, vomiting, and diarrhea occurred in greater proportions of older patients. Similar proportions of older patients (2.4%) and younger patients (1.5%) discontinued fluconazole therapy because of side effects. In post-marketing experience, spontaneous reports of anemia and acute renal failure were more frequent among patients 65 years of age or older than in those between 12 and 65 years of age. Because of the voluntary nature of the reports and the natural increase in the incidence of anemia and renal failure in the elderly, it is however not possible to establish a casual relationship to drug exposure.

Controlled clinical trials of fluconazole did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and older to evaluate whether they respond differently from younger patients in each indication. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

Fluconazole is primarily cleared by renal excretion as unchanged drug. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken to adjust dose based on creatinine clearance. It may be useful to monitor renal function. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

DIFLUCAN is generally well tolerated.

In some patients, particularly those with serious underlying diseases such as AIDS and cancer, changes in renal and hematological function test results and hepatic abnormalities have been observed during treatment with fluconazole and comparative agents, but the clinical significance and relationship to treatment is uncertain.

In Patients Receiving a Single Dose for Vaginal Candidiasis

During comparative clinical studies conducted in the United States, 448 patients with vaginal candidiasis were treated with DIFLUCAN, 150 mg single dose. The overall incidence of side effects possibly related to DIFLUCAN was 26%. In 422 patients receiving active comparative agents, the incidence was 16%. The most common treatment-related adverse events reported in the patients who received 150 mg single dose fluconazole for vaginitis were headache (13%), nausea (7%), and abdominal pain (6%). Other side effects reported with an incidence equal to or greater than 1% included diarrhea (3%), dyspepsia (1%), dizziness (1%), and taste perversion (1%). Most of the reported side effects were mild to moderate in severity. Rarely, angioedema and anaphylactic reaction have been reported in marketing experience.

In Patients Receiving Multiple Doses for Other Infections

Sixteen percent of over 4000 patients treated with DIFLUCAN (fluconazole) in clinical trials of 7 days or more experienced adverse events. Treatment was discontinued in 1.5% of patients due to adverse clinical events and in 1.3% of patients due to laboratory test abnormalities.

Clinical adverse events were reported more frequently in HIV infected patients (21%) than in non-HIV infected patients (13%); however, the patterns in HIV infected and non-HIV infected patients were similar. The proportions of patients discontinuing therapy due to clinical adverse events were similar in the two groups (1.5%).

The following treatment-related clinical adverse events occurred at an incidence of 1% or greater in 4048 patients receiving DIFLUCAN for 7 or more days in clinical trials: nausea 3.7%, headache 1.9%, skin rash 1.8%, vomiting 1.7%, abdominal pain 1.7%, and diarrhea 1.5%.

Hepato-biliary

In combined clinical trials and marketing experience, there have been rare cases of serious hepatic reactions during treatment with DIFLUCAN. (See WARNINGS.) The spectrum of these hepatic reactions has ranged from mild transient elevations in transaminases to clinical hepatitis, cholestasis and fulminant hepatic failure, including fatalities. Instances of fatal hepatic reactions were noted to occur primarily in patients with serious underlying medical conditions (predominantly AIDS or malignancy) and often while taking multiple concomitant medications. Transient hepatic reactions, including hepatitis and jaundice, have occurred among patients with no other identifiable risk factors. In each of these cases, liver function returned to baseline on discontinuation of DIFLUCAN.

In two comparative trials evaluating the efficacy of DIFLUCAN for the suppression of relapse of cryptococcal meningitis, a statistically significant increase was observed in median AST (SGOT) levels from a baseline value of 30 IU/L to 41 IU/L in one trial and 34 IU/L to 66 IU/L in the other. The overall rate of serum transaminase elevations of more than 8 times the upper limit of normal was approximately 1% in fluconazole-treated patients in clinical trials. These elevations occurred in patients with severe underlying disease, predominantly AIDS or malignancies, most of whom were receiving multiple concomitant medications, including many known to be hepatotoxic. The incidence of abnormally elevated serum transaminases was greater in patients taking DIFLUCAN concomitantly with one or more of the following medications: rifampin, phenytoin, isoniazid, valproic acid, or oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents.

Post-Marketing Experience

In addition, the following adverse events have occurred during post-marketing experience.

Immunologic: In rare cases, anaphylaxis (including angioedema, face edema and pruritus) has been reported.

Body as a Whole: Asthenia, fatigue, fever, malaise.

Cardiovascular: QT prolongation, torsade de pointes. (See PRECAUTIONS.)

Central Nervous System: Seizures, dizziness.

Hematopoietic and Lymphatic: Leukopenia, including neutropenia and agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia.

Metabolic: Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypokalemia.

Gastrointestinal: Cholestasis, dry mouth, hepatocellular damage, dyspepsia, vomiting.

Other Senses: Taste perversion.

Musculoskeletal System: myalgia.

Nervous System: Insomnia, paresthesia, somnolence, tremor, vertigo.

Skin and Appendages: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, drug eruption, increased sweating, exfoliative skin disorders including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (see WARNINGS), alopecia.

Adverse Reactions in Children

The pattern and incidence of adverse events and laboratory abnormalities recorded during pediatric clinical trials are comparable to those seen in adults.

In Phase II/III clinical trials conducted in the United States and in Europe, 577 pediatric patients, ages 1 day to 17 years were treated with DIFLUCAN at doses up to 15 mg/kg/day for up to 1,616 days. Thirteen percent of children experienced treatment-related adverse events. The most commonly reported events were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (3%), nausea (2%), and diarrhea (2%). Treatment was discontinued in 2.3% of patients due to adverse clinical events and in 1.4% of patients due to laboratory test abnormalities. The majority of treatment-related laboratory abnormalities were elevations of transaminases or alkaline phosphatase.

Percentage of Patients With Treatment-Related Side Effects
Fluconazole
(N=577)
Comparative Agents
(N=451)
With any side effect 13.0   9.3
Vomiting 5.4 5.1
Abdominal pain 2.8 1.6
Nausea 2.3 1.6
Diarrhea 2.1 2.2

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

DIFLUCAN (fluconazole) is indicated for the treatment of:

  1. Vaginal candidiasis (vaginal yeast infections due to Candida).
  2. Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. In open noncomparative studies of relatively small numbers of patients, DIFLUCAN was also effective for the treatment of Candida urinary tract infections, peritonitis, and systemic Candida infections including candidemia, disseminated candidiasis, and pneumonia.
  3. Cryptococcal meningitis. Before prescribing DIFLUCAN (fluconazole) for AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis, please see CLINICAL STUDIES section. Studies comparing DIFLUCAN to amphotericin B in non-HIV infected patients have not been conducted.

Prophylaxis: DIFLUCAN is also indicated to decrease the incidence of candidiasis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

Specimens for fungal culture and other relevant laboratory studies (serology, histopathology) should be obtained prior to therapy to isolate and identify causative organisms. Therapy may be instituted before the results of the cultures and other laboratory studies are known; however, once these results become available, anti-infective therapy should be adjusted accordingly.

ERAXIS® (anidulafungin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ERAXIS safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ERAXIS.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

ERAXIS is contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to anidulafungin, any component of ERAXIS, or other echinocandins.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hepatic Effects

Laboratory abnormalities in liver function tests have been seen in healthy volunteers and patients treated with ERAXIS. In some patients with serious underlying medical conditions who were receiving multiple concomitant medications along with ERAXIS, clinically significant hepatic abnormalities have occurred. Isolated cases of significant hepatic dysfunction, hepatitis, or hepatic failure have been reported in patients; a causal relationship to ERAXIS has not been established. Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during ERAXIS therapy should be monitored for evidence of worsening hepatic function and evaluated for risk/benefit of continuing ERAXIS therapy.

5.2 Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic reactions, including shock were reported with the use of ERAXIS. If these reactions occur, ERAXIS should be discontinued and appropriate treatment administered [see Adverse Reactions (6.5)].

Infusion-related adverse reactions, possibly histamine-mediated, have been reported with ERAXIS, including rash, urticaria, flushing, pruritus, bronchospasm, dyspnea, and hypotension [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. To reduce occurrence of these reactions, do not exceed a rate of ERAXIS infusion of 1.1 mg/minute [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most serious adverse reactions reported with ERAXIS are:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety of ERAXIS for Injection was assessed in 929 individuals, including 257 healthy subjects and 672 patients in clinical trials of candidemia, other forms of Candida infections, and esophageal candidiasis. A total of 633 patients received ERAXIS at daily doses of either 50 mg or 100 mg. A total of 481 patients received ERAXIS for ≥14 days.

6.2 Candidemia/other Candida Infections

Three studies (one comparative vs. fluconazole, two non-comparative) assessed the efficacy and safety of ERAXIS (100 mg) in patients with candidemia and other Candida infections.

The data described below reflect exposure to ERAXIS and fluconazole in 127 and 118 patients, respectively, with candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis, in the randomized, comparative trial of the efficacy and safety of ERAXIS to that of fluconazole. In ERAXIS-treated patients, the age range was 16–89 years, the gender distribution was 51% male and 49% female, and the race distribution was 72% White, 18% Black/African American, 9% other races. Patients were randomized to receive once daily IV ERAXIS (200 mg loading dose followed by 100 mg maintenance dose) or IV fluconazole (800 mg loading dose followed by 400 mg maintenance dose). Treatment was administered for at least 14 and not more than 42 days.

The number of patients with adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of study medication was 11.5% in the ERAXIS arm and 21.6% in the fluconazole arm. The most common adverse reactions leading to study drug discontinuation were multi-organ failure and systemic Candida infection in the ERAXIS arm.

Table 2 presents adverse reactions that were reported in ≥5% of subjects receiving ERAXIS or fluconazole therapy in this trial.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥5% of Subjects Receiving ERAXIS or Fluconazole Therapy for Candidemia/other Candida Infections*,
ERAXIS
100 mg
N=131
Fluconazole
400 mg
N=125
N (%) N (%)
*
A patient who experienced multiple reactions with a System Organ Class (SOC) or preferred term was counted one time for that class, one time for the preferred term and one time for "subjects with at least one adverse reaction"
This trial was not designed to support comparative claims for ERAXIS for the adverse reactions reported in this table.
Subjects with a least one adverse reaction 130 (99) 122 (98)
 
Infections and infestations 82 (63) 80 (64)
  Bacteremia 23 (18) 23 (18)
  Urinary tract infection 19 (15) 22 (18)
  Sepsis 9 (7) 11 (9)
  Pneumonia 8 (6) 19 (15)
Gastrointestinal disorders 81 (62) 72 (58)
  Nausea 32 (24) 15 (12)
  Diarrhea 24 (18) 23 (18)
  Vomiting 23 (18) 12 (10)
  Constipation 11 (8) 14 (11)
  Abdominal pain 8 (6) 16 (13)
General disorders and administration site conditions 70 (53) 76 (61)
  Pyrexia 23 (18) 23 (18)
  Edema peripheral 14 (11) 16 (13)
  Chest pain 7 (5) 6 (5)
Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders 67 (51) 55 (44)
  Dyspnea 15 (12) 4 (3)
  Pleural effusion 13 (10) 11 (9)
  Cough 9 (7) 7 (6)
  Respiratory distress 8 (6) 2 (2)
Investigations 66 (50) 46 (37)
  Blood alkaline phosphatase increased 15 (12) 14 (11)
  White blood cell increased 11 (8) 3 (2)
  Hepatic enzyme increased 7 (5) 14 (11)
  Blood creatinine increased 7 (5) 1 (1)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders 61 (47) 61 (49)
  Hypokalemia 33 (25) 24 (19)
  Hypomagnesemia 15 (12) 14 (11)
  Hypoglycemia 9 (7) 10 (8)
  Hyperkalemia 8 (6) 14 (11)
  Hyperglycemia 8 (6) 8 (6)
  Dehydration 8 (6) 2 (2)
Vascular disorders 50 (38) 41 (33)
  Hypotension 19 (15) 18 (14)
  Hypertension 15 (12) 5 (4)
  Deep vein thrombosis 13 (10) 9 (7)
Psychiatric disorders 48(37) 45 (36)
  Insomnia 20 (15) 12 (10)
  Confusional state 10 (8) 10 (8)
  Depression 8 (6) 5 (4)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders 34 (26) 36 (29)
  Anemia 12 (9) 20 (16)
  Thrombocythemia 8 (6) 1 (1)
  Leukocytosis 7 (5) 6 (5)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders 30 (23) 32 (26)
  Decubitus ulcer 7 (5) 10 (8)
Nervous system disorders 27 (21) 31 (25)
  Headache 11 (8) 10 (8)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders 27 (21) 25 (20)
  Back pain 7 (5) 13 (10)

6.3 Esophageal Candidiasis

The data described below reflect exposure to ERAXIS and fluconazole in 300 and 301 patients, respectively, with esophageal candidiasis in a randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of ERAXIS to that of oral fluconazole. In ERAXIS-treated patients, the age range was 18–68 years, the gender distribution was 42% male and 58% female and the race distribution was 15% White, 49% Black/African American, 15% Asian, 0.3 % Hispanic, 21% other races. Patients were randomized to receive IV ERAXIS (100 mg on day 1, followed by 50 mg per day) or oral fluconazole (200 mg on day 1, followed by 100 mg per day) for 7 days beyond resolution of symptoms (range, 14–21 days).

Twenty eight (9%) patients in the ERAXIS arm and 36 (12%) patients in the fluconazole arm had adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of study medication. The most common adverse reactions leading to study drug discontinuation were maculopapular rash for the ERAXIS arm. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were rash and increased AST for the fluconazole arm.

Table 3 presents adverse reactions that were reported in ≥5% of subjects receiving ERAXIS therapy.

Table 3 Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥5% of Subjects Receiving ERAXIS or Fluconazole Therapy for Esophageal Candidiasis*,
ERAXIS
50 mg
N=300
Fluconazole
100 mg
N=301
N (%) N (%)
*
A patient who experienced multiple reactions with a System Organ Class (SOC) or preferred term was counted one time for that class, one time for the preferred term and one time for "subjects with at least one adverse reaction"
This trial was not designed to support comparative claims for ERAXIS for the adverse reactions reported in this table.
Subjects with a least one adverse reactions 239 (80) 227 (75)
 
Infections and infestations 115 (38) 99 (33)
  Oral candidiasis 15 (5) 10 (3)
Gastrointestinal disorders 106 (35) 113 (38)
  Diarrhea 27(9) 26(9)
  Vomiting 27(7) 30(10)
  Nausea 20(7) 23(8)
  Dyspepsia 20(7) 21(7)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders 55 (18) 50 (17)
  Anemia 25 (8) 22 (7)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders 50 (17) 46 (15)
  Hypokalemia 14 (5) 17 (6)
General disorders and administration site condition 49 (16) 54 (18)
  Pyrexia 27(9) 28(9)
Nervous system disorders 39 (13) 36 (12)
  Headache 25 (8) 20 (7)

6.4 Less Common Adverse Reactions

The following selected adverse reactions occurred in <2% of patients:

Blood and Lymphatic: coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia

Cardiac: atrial fibrillation, bundle branch block (right), sinus arrhythmia, ventricular extrasystoles

Eye: eye pain, vision blurred, visual disturbance

General and Administration Site: infusion related reaction, peripheral edema, rigors

Hepatobiliary: abnormal liver function tests, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis

Infections: clostridial infection

Investigations: amylase increased, bilirubin increased, CPK increased, electrocardiogram QT prolonged, gamma-glutamyl transferase increased, lipase increased, potassium decreased, prothrombin time prolonged, urea increased

Nervous System: convulsion, dizziness

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal: cough

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue: angioneurotic edema, erythema, pruritus, sweating increased, urticaria

Vascular: flushing, hot flushes, thrombophlebitis superficial

6.5 Post-marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of anidulafungin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Immune: Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction, bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ERAXIS is indicated for use in adults for the treatment of the following fungal infections listed below. Specimens for fungal culture and other relevant laboratory studies (including histopathology) should be obtained prior to therapy to isolate and identify causative organism(s). Therapy may be instituted before the results of the cultures and other laboratory studies known. However, once these results become available, antifungal therapy should be adjusted accordingly.

1.1 Candidemia and Other Forms of Candida Infections (Intra-abdominal Abscess and Peritonitis)

ERAXIS is indicated for the treatment of candidemia and the following Candida infections: intra-abdominal abscess and peritonitis [see Clinical Studies(14.1) and Clinical Pharmacology, Microbiology (12.4)].

1.2 Esophageal Candidiasis

ERAXIS is indicated for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis [see Clinical Studies (14.2), Table 10 for higher relapse rates off ERAXIS therapy].

1.3 Limitation of Use

ERAXIS has not been studied in endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and meningitis due to Candida, and has not been studied in sufficient numbers of neutropenic patients to determine efficacy in this group.

FLAGYL® (metronidazole)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use FLAGYL safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for FLAGYL.

WARNING

Metronidazole has been shown to be carcinogenic in mice and rats (see PRECAUTIONS). Unnecessary use of the drug should be avoided. Its use should be reserved for the conditions described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section below.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity

FLAGYL Tablets is contraindicated in patients with a prior history of hypersensitivity to metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives.

In patients with trichomoniasis, FLAGYL Tablets is contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy (see PRECAUTIONS).

Psychotic Reaction with Disulfiram

Use of oral metronidazole is associated with psychotic reactions in alcoholic patients who were using disulfiram concurrently. Do not administer metronidazole to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

Interaction with Alcohol

Use of oral metronidazole is associated with a disulfiram-like reaction to alcohol, including abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing. Discontinue consumption of alcohol or products containing propylene glycol during and for at least three days after therapy with metronidazole (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

WARNINGS

Central and Peripheral Nervous System Effects

Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy

Cases of encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy (including optic neuropathy) have been reported with metronidazole.

Encephalopathy has been reported in association with cerebellar toxicity characterized by ataxia, dizziness, and dysarthria. CNS lesions seen on MRI have been described in reports of encephalopathy. CNS symptoms are generally reversible within days to weeks upon discontinuation of metronidazole. CNS lesions seen on MRI have also been described as reversible.

Peripheral neuropathy, mainly of sensory type has been reported and is characterized by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity.

Convulsive seizures have been reported in patients treated with metronidazole.

Aseptic meningitis

Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported with metronidazole. Symptoms can occur within hours of dose administration and generally resolve after metronidazole therapy is discontinued.

The appearance of abnormal neurologic signs and symptoms demands the prompt evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio of the continuation of therapy (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Risk of Hepatotoxicity and Death in Patients with Cockayne Syndrome

Cases of severe hepatotoxicity/acute hepatic failure, including cases with a fatal outcome with very rapid onset after treatment initiation in patients with Cockayne syndrome have been reported with products containing metronidazole for systemic use. In this population, metronidazole should therefore be used after careful benefit-risk assessment and only if no alternative treatment is available. Obtain liver function tests prior to the start of therapy, within the first 2–3 days after initiation of therapy, frequently during therapy and after end of treatment. Discontinue metronidazole if elevation of liver function tests occurs, and monitor liver function tests until the baseline values are reached.

Advise patients with Cockayne syndrome to stop taking metronidazole immediately if they experience any symptoms of potential liver injury, such as abdominal pain, nausea, change in stool color or jaundice, and to contact their healthcare provider.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Hepatic Impairment

Patients with hepatic impairment metabolize metronidazole slowly, with resultant accumulation of metronidazole in the plasma. For patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C), a reduced dose of FLAGYL is recommended. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, no dosage adjustment is needed but these patients should be monitored for metronidazole associated adverse events (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Renal Impairment

Patients with end-stage renal disease may excrete metronidazole and metabolites slowly in the urine, resulting in significant accumulation of metronidazole metabolites. Monitoring for metronidazole associated adverse events is recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Fungal Superinfections

Known or previously unrecognized candidiasis may present more prominent symptoms during therapy with FLAGYL and requires treatment with a candidacidal agent.

Use in Patients with Blood Dyscrasias

Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole and should be used with caution in patients with evidence of or history of blood dyscrasia. A mild leukopenia has been observed during its administration; however, no persistent hematologic abnormalities attributable to metronidazole have been observed in clinical studies. Total and differential leukocyte counts are recommended before and after therapy.

Drug-Resistant Bacteria and Parasites

Prescribing FLAGYL in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial or parasitic infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites.

Information for Patients

Interaction with Alcohol

Discontinue consumption of alcoholic beverages or products containing propylene glycol while taking FLAGYL and for at least three days afterward because abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

Treatment of Bacterial and Parasitic Infections

Patients should be counseled that FLAGYL should only be used to treat bacterial and parasitic infections. FLAGYL does not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When FLAGYL is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by FLAGYL in the future.

Drug Interactions

Disulfiram

Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients who are using metronidazole and disulfiram concurrently. Metronidazole should not be given to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Alcoholic Beverages

Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur if alcoholic beverages or products containing propylene glycol are consumed during or following metronidazole therapy (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Warfarin and other Oral Anticoagulants

Metronidazole has been reported to potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other oral coumarin anticoagulants, resulting in a prolongation of prothrombin time. When FLAGYL is prescribed for patients on this type of anticoagulant therapy, prothrombin time and INR should be carefully monitored.

Lithium

In patients stabilized on relatively high doses of lithium, short-term metronidazole therapy has been associated with elevation of serum lithium and, in a few cases, signs of lithium toxicity. Serum lithium and serum creatinine levels should be obtained several days after beginning metronidazole to detect any increase that may precede clinical symptoms of lithium intoxication.

Busulfan

Metronidazole has been reported to increase plasma concentrations of busulfan, which can result in an increased risk for serious busulfan toxicity. Metronidazole should not be administered concomitantly with busulfan unless the benefit outweighs the risk. If no therapeutic alternatives to metronidazole are available, and concomitant administration with busulfan is medically needed, frequent monitoring of busulfan plasma concentration should be performed and the busulfan dose should be adjusted accordingly.

Drugs that Inhibit CYP450 Enzymes

The simultaneous administration of drugs that decrease microsomal liver enzyme activity, such as cimetidine, may prolong the half-life and decrease plasma clearance of metronidazole.

Drugs that Induce CYP450 Enzymes

The simultaneous administration of drugs that induce microsomal liver enzymes, such as phenytoin or phenobarbital, may accelerate the elimination of metronidazole, resulting in reduced plasma levels; impaired clearance of phenytoin has also been reported.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Metronidazole may interfere with certain types of determinations of serum chemistry values, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, and glucose hexokinase. Values of zero may be observed. All of the assays in which interference has been reported involve enzymatic coupling of the assay to oxidation-reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+Symbol NADH). Interference is due to the similarity in absorbance peaks of NADH (340 nm) and metronidazole (322 nm) at pH 7.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Tumors affecting the liver, lungs, mammary, and lymphatic tissues have been detected in several studies of metronidazole in rats and mice, but not hamsters.

Pulmonary tumors have been observed in all six reported studies in the mouse, including one study in which the animals were dosed on an intermittent schedule (administration during every fourth week only). Malignant liver tumors were increased in male mice treated at approximately 1500 mg/m2 (similar to the maximum recommended daily dose, based on body surface area comparisons). Malignant lymphomas and pulmonary neoplasms were also increased with lifetime feeding of the drug to mice. Mammary and hepatic tumors were increased among female rats administered oral metronidazole compared to concurrent controls. Two lifetime tumorigenicity studies in hamsters have been performed and reported to be negative.

Metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in in vitro assay systems including the Ames test. Studies in mammals in vivo have failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage.

Metronidazole failed to produce any adverse effects on fertility or testicular function in male rats at doses up at 400 mg/kg/day (similar to the maximum recommended clinical dose, based on body surface area comparisons) for 28 days. However, rats treated at the same dose for 6 weeks or longer were infertile and showed severe degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium in the testes as well as marked decreases in testicular spermatid counts and epididymal sperm counts. Fertility was restored in most rats after an eight week, drug-free recovery period.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

There are no adequate and well controlled studies of FLAGYL in pregnant women. There are published data from case-control studies, cohort studies, and 2 meta-analyses that include more than 5000 pregnant women who used metronidazole during pregnancy. Many studies included first trimester exposures. One study showed an increased risk of cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, in infants exposed to metronidazole in-utero; however, these findings were not confirmed. In addition, more than ten randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials enrolled more than 5000 pregnant women to assess the use of antibiotic treatment (including metronidazole) for bacterial vaginosis on the incidence of preterm delivery. Most studies did not show an increased risk for congenital anomalies or other adverse fetal outcomes following metronidazole exposure during pregnancy. Three studies conducted to assess the risk of infant cancer following metronidazole exposure during pregnancy did not show an increased risk; however, the ability of these studies to detect such a signal was limited.

Metronidazole crosses the placental barrier and its effects on the human fetal organogenesis are not known. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, rabbits, and mice at doses similar to the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area comparisons. There was no evidence of harm to the fetus due to metronidazole.

Nursing Mothers

Metronidazole is present in human milk at concentrations similar to maternal serum levels, and infant serum levels can be close to or comparable to infant therapeutic levels. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for metronidazole in mouse and rat studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Alternatively, a nursing mother may choose to pump and discard human milk for the duration of metronidazole therapy, and for 24 hours after therapy ends and feed her infant stored human milk or formula.

Geriatric Use

In elderly geriatric patients, monitoring for metronidazole associated adverse events is recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, PRECAUTIONS). Decreased liver function in geriatric patients can result in increased concentrations of metronidazole that may necessitate adjustment of metronidazole dosage (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established, except for the treatment of amebiasis.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions have been reported during treatment with metronidazole:

Central Nervous System

The most serious adverse reactions reported in patients treated with metronidazole have been convulsive seizures, encephalopathy, aseptic meningitis, optic and peripheral neuropathy, the latter characterized mainly by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity. Since persistent peripheral neuropathy has been reported in some patients receiving prolonged administration of metronidazole, patients should be specifically warned about these reactions and should be told to stop the drug and report immediately to their physicians if any neurologic symptoms occur. In addition, patients have reported headache, syncope, dizziness, vertigo, incoordination, ataxia, confusion, dysarthria, irritability, depression, weakness, and insomnia (see WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal

The most common adverse reactions reported have been referable to the gastrointestinal tract, particularly nausea, sometimes accompanied by headache, anorexia, and occasionally vomiting; diarrhea; epigastric distress; and abdominal cramping and constipation.

Mouth

A sharp, unpleasant metallic taste is not unusual. Furry tongue, glossitis, and stomatitis have occurred; these may be associated with a sudden overgrowth of Candida which may occur during therapy.

Dermatologic

Erythematous rash and pruritus.

Hematopoietic

Reversible neutropenia (leukopenia); rarely, reversible thrombocytopenia.

Cardiovascular

Flattening of the T-wave may be seen in electrocardiographic tracings.

Hypersensitivity

Urticaria, erythematous rash, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, flushing, nasal congestion, dryness of the mouth (or vagina or vulva), and fever.

Renal

Dysuria, cystitis, polyuria, incontinence, and a sense of pelvic pressure. Instances of darkened urine have been reported by approximately one patient in 100,000. Although the pigment which is probably responsible for this phenomenon has not been positively identified, it is almost certainly a metabolite of metronidazole and seems to have no clinical significance.

Other

Proliferation of Candida in the vagina, dyspareunia, decrease of libido, proctitis, and fleeting joint pains sometimes resembling "serum sickness." Rare cases of pancreatitis, which generally abated on withdrawal of the drug, have been reported.

Patients with Crohn's disease are known to have an increased incidence of gastrointestinal and certain extraintestinal cancers. There have been some reports in the medical literature of breast and colon cancer in Crohn's disease patients who have been treated with metronidazole at high doses for extended periods of time. A cause and effect relationship has not been established. Crohn's disease is not an approved indication for FLAGYL tablets.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Symptomatic Trichomoniasis

FLAGYL is indicated for the treatment of T. vaginalis infection in females and males when the presence of the trichomonad has been confirmed by appropriate laboratory procedures (wet smears and/or cultures).

Asymptomatic Trichomoniasis

FLAGYL is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection in females when the organism is associated with endocervicitis, cervicitis, or cervical erosion. Since there is evidence that presence of the trichomonad can interfere with accurate assessment of abnormal cytological smears, additional smears should be performed after eradication of the parasite.

Treatment of Asymptomatic Sexual Partners

T. vaginalis infection is a venereal disease. Therefore, asymptomatic sexual partners of treated patients should be treated simultaneously if the organism has been found to be present, in order to prevent reinfection of the partner. The decision as to whether to treat an asymptomatic male partner who has a negative culture or one for whom no culture has been attempted is an individual one. In making this decision, it should be noted that there is evidence that a woman may become reinfected if her sexual partner is not treated. Also, since there can be considerable difficulty in isolating the organism from the asymptomatic male carrier, negative smears and cultures cannot be relied upon in this regard. In any event, the sexual partner should be treated with FLAGYL in cases of reinfection.

Amebiasis

FLAGYL is indicated in the treatment of acute intestinal amebiasis (amebic dysentery) and amebic liver abscess.

In amebic liver abscess, FLAGYL therapy does not obviate the need for aspiration or drainage of pus.

Anaerobic Bacterial Infections

FLAGYL is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with FLAGYL therapy. In a mixed aerobic and anaerobic infection, antimicrobials appropriate for the treatment of the aerobic infection should be used in addition to FLAGYL.

INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS, including peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess, and liver abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. vulgatus), Clostridium species, Eubacterium species, Peptococcus species, and Peptostreptococcus species.

SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group, Clostridium species, Peptococcus species, Peptostreptococcus species, and Fusobacterium species.

GYNECOLOGIC INFECTIONS, including endometritis, endomyometritis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group, Clostridium species, Peptococcus species, Peptostreptococcus species, and Fusobacterium species.

BACTERIAL SEPTICEMIA caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group and Clostridium species.

BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS, (as adjunctive therapy), caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) INFECTIONS, including meningitis and brain abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS, including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

ENDOCARDITIS caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of FLAGYL and other antibacterial drugs, FLAGYL should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

FLAGYL® (ER FORMULATION) (metronidazole)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use FLAGYL (ER FORMULATION) safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for FLAGYL (ER FORMULATION).

WARNING

Metronidazole has been shown to be carcinogenic in mice and rats (see PRECAUTIONS). Unnecessary use of the drug should be avoided. Its use should be reserved for conditions described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section below.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity

FLAGYL ER 750 mg tablets are contraindicated in patients with a prior history of hypersensitivity to metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives.

Psychotic Reaction with Disulfiram

Use of oral metronidazole is associated with psychotic reactions in alcoholic patients who were using disulfiram concurrently. Do not administer metronidazole to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

Interaction with Alcohol

Use of oral metronidazole is associated with a disulfiram-like reaction to alcohol, including abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing. Discontinue consumption of alcohol or products containing propylene glycol during and for at least three days after therapy with metronidazole (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

WARNINGS

Central and Peripheral Nervous System Effects

Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy

Cases of encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy (including optic neuropathy) have been reported with metronidazole.

Encephalopathy has been reported in association with cerebellar toxicity characterized by ataxia, dizziness, and dysarthria. CNS lesions seen on MRI have been described in reports of encephalopathy. CNS symptoms are generally reversible within days to weeks upon discontinuation of metronidazole. CNS lesions seen on MRI have also been described as reversible.

Peripheral neuropathy, mainly of sensory type has been reported and is characterized by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity.

Convulsive seizures have been reported in patients treated with metronidazole.

Aseptic meningitis

Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported with metronidazole. Symptoms can occur within hours of dose administration and generally resolve after metronidazole therapy is discontinued.

The appearance of abnormal neurologic signs and symptoms demands the prompt evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio of the continuation of therapy (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Risk of Hepatotoxicity and Death in Patients with Cockayne Syndrome

Cases of severe hepatotoxicity/acute hepatic failure, including cases with a fatal outcome with very rapid onset after treatment initiation in patients with Cockayne syndrome have been reported with products containing metronidazole for systemic use. In this population, metronidazole should therefore be used after careful benefit-risk assessment and only if no alternative treatment is available. Obtain liver function tests prior to the start of therapy, within the first 2–3 days after initiation of therapy, frequently during therapy and after end of treatment. Discontinue metronidazole if elevation of liver function tests occurs, and monitor liver function tests until the baseline values are reached.

Advise patients with Cockayne syndrome to stop taking metronidazole immediately if they experience any symptoms of potential liver injury, such as abdominal pain, nausea, change in stool color or jaundice, and to contact their healthcare provider.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Hepatic Impairment

Patients with hepatic impairment metabolize metronidazole slowly, with resultant accumulation of metronidazole in the plasma. FLAGYL ER tablets should not be administered to patients with severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment unless it is deemed that the benefits outweigh the risks in these patients. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, no dosage adjustment is needed. Patients with hepatic impairment who receive the usual recommended dose of FLAGYL ER tablets should be monitored for metronidazole associated adverse events (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Renal Impairment

Patients with end-stage renal disease may excrete metronidazole and metabolites slowly in the urine, resulting in significant accumulation of metronidazole metabolites. Monitoring for metronidazole associated adverse events is recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Fungal Superinfections

Known or previously unrecognized candidiasis may present more prominent symptoms during therapy with metronidazole and requires treatment with a candidacidal agent.

Use in Patients with Blood Dyscrasias

Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole and should be used with caution in patients with evidence of or history of blood dyscrasia. A mild leucopenia has been observed during its administration; however, no persistent hematologic abnormalities attributable to metronidazole have been observed in clinical studies. Total and differential leukocyte counts are recommended before and after therapy.

Drug-Resistant Bacteria and Parasites

Prescribing FLAGYL ER in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites.

Information for Patients

Interaction with Alcohol

Discontinue consumption of alcoholic beverages or products containing propylene glycol while taking metronidazole and for at least three days afterward because abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

Treatment of Bacterial Infections

Patients should be counseled that FLAGYL ER should only be used to treat bacterial infections. FLAGYL ER does not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When FLAGYL ER is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by FLAGYL ER in the future.

Drug Interactions

Disulfiram

Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients who are using metronidazole and disulfiram concurrently. Metronidazole should not be given to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last 2 weeks (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Alcoholic Beverages

Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur if alcoholic beverages or products containing propylene glycol are consumed during or following metronidazole therapy (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Warfarin and other Oral Anticoagulants

Metronidazole has been reported to potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other oral coumarin anticoagulants, resulting in a prolongation of prothrombin time. When FLAGYL 375 capsules is prescribed for patients on this type of anticoagulant therapy, prothrombin time and INR should be carefully monitored.

Lithium

In patients stabilized on relatively high doses of lithium, short-term metronidazole therapy has been associated with elevation of serum lithium and, in a few cases, signs of lithium toxicity. Serum lithium and serum creatinine levels should be obtained several days after beginning metronidazole to detect any increase that may precede clinical symptoms of lithium intoxication.

Busulfan

Metronidazole has been reported to increase plasma concentrations of busulfan, which can result in an increased risk for serious busulfan toxicity. Metronidazole should not be administered concomitantly with busulfan unless the benefit outweighs the risk. If no therapeutic alternatives to metronidazole are available, and concomitant administration with busulfan is medically needed, frequent monitoring of busulfan plasma concentration should be performed and the busulfan dose should be adjusted accordingly.

Drugs that Inhibit CYP450 Enzymes

The simultaneous administration of drugs that decrease microsomal liver enzyme activity, such as cimetidine, may prolong the half-life and decrease plasma clearance of metronidazole.

Drugs that Induce CYP450 Enzymes

The simultaneous administration of drugs that induce microsomal liver enzymes, such as phenytoin or phenobarbital, may accelerate the elimination of metronidazole, resulting in reduced plasma levels; impaired clearance of phenytoin has been reported.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Metronidazole may interfere with certain types of determinations of serum chemistry values, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, and glucose hexokinase. Values of zero may be observed. All of the assays in which interference has been reported involve enzymatic coupling of the assay to oxidation-reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+SymbolNADH). Interference is due to the similarity in absorbance peaks of NADH (340 nm) and metronidazole (322 nm) at pH 7.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Tumors affecting the liver, lung, mammary, and lymphatic tissues have been detected in several studies of metronidazole in rats and mice, but not hamsters.

Pulmonary tumors have been observed in all six reported studies in the mouse, including one study in which the animals were dosed on an intermittent schedule (administration during every fourth week only). Malignant liver tumors were increased in male mice treated at approximately 1500 mg/m2 (about 3 times the recommended daily dose, based on body surface area comparisons). Malignant lymphomas and pulmonary neoplasms are also increased with lifetime feeding of the drug to mice. Mammary and hepatic tumors were increased among female rats administered oral metronidazole compared to concurrent controls. Two lifetime tumorigenicity studies in hamsters have been performed and reported to be negative.

Metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in in vitro assay systems including the Ames test. Studies in mammals in vivo have failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage.

Metronidazole failed to produce any adverse effects on fertility or testicular function in male rats at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the recommended dose based on body surface area comparisons) for 28 days. However, rats treated at the same dose for 6 weeks, or longer were infertile and showed severe degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium in the testes as well as marked decreases in testicular spermatid counts and epididymal sperm counts. Fertility was restored in most rats after an eight week, drug-free recovery period.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of FLAGYL ER in pregnant women. There are published data from case-control studies, cohort studies, and 2-meta-analyses that include more than 5000 pregnant women who used metronidazole during pregnancy. Many studies included first trimester exposures. One study showed an increased risk of cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, in infants exposed to metronidazole in-utero; however, these finding were not confirmed. In addition, more than ten randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials enrolled more than 5000 pregnant women to assess the use of antibiotic treatment (including metronidazole) for bacterial vaginosis on the incidence of preterm delivery. Most studies did not show an increased risk for congenital anomalies or other adverse fetal outcomes following metronidazole exposure during pregnancy. Three studies conducted to assess the risk of infant cancer following metronidazole exposure during pregnancy did not show an increased risk; however, the ability of these studies to detect such a signal was limited.

Metronidazole crosses the placental barrier and its effects on the human fetal organogenesis are not known. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, rabbits, and mice at doses about four times the recommended human dose based on body surface area comparisons. There was no evidence of harm to the fetus due to metronidazole.

Nursing mothers

Metronidazole is present in human milk at concentrations similar to maternal serum levels, and infant serum levels can be close to or comparable to infant therapeutic levels. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for metronidazole in mouse and rat studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Alternatively, a nursing mother may choose to pump and discard human milk for the duration of metronidazole therapy, and for 24 hours after therapy ends and feed her infant stored human milk or formula.

Geriatric use

In geriatric patients, monitoring for metronidazole associated adverse events is recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, PRECAUTIONS). Decreased liver function in geriatric patients can result in increased concentrations of metronidazole that may necessitate adjustment of metronidazole dosage (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pediatric use

The safety and efficacy of FLAGYL ER 750 mg tablets in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in post-menarchal females has been established on the extrapolation of clinical trial data from adult women. The safety and efficacy of FLAGYL ER 750 mg tablets in pre-menarchal females have not been established.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In two multicenter clinical trials, a total of 270 patients received 750 mg FLAGYL ER tablets orally once daily for 7 days, and 287 were treated with a comparator agent administered intravaginally once daily for 7 days (See CLINICAL STUDIES).3,4

Most adverse events were described as being of mild or moderate severity. Among patients taking FLAGYL ER who reported headaches, 10% considered them severe, and less than 2% of reported episodes of nausea were considered severe. Metallic taste was reported by 9% of patients taking FLAGYL ER.

Adverse events reported at ≥2% incidence for either treatment group, irrespective of treatment causality, are summarized in the table below.

Adverse Events (≥2% Incidence Rate)—Irrespective of Treatment Causality
FLAGYL ER 7 days
(N=267)
Vaginal Preparation
(N=285)
Headache 48 (18%) 44 (15%)
Vaginitis 39 (15%) 32 (12%)
Nausea 28 (10%) 8 (3%)
Taste Perversion (metallic taste) 23 (9%) 1 (0%)
Infection Bacterial 19 (7%) 17 (6%)
Influenza-like Symptoms 17 (6%) 20 (7%)
Pruritus Genital 14 (5%) 25 (9%)
Abdominal Pain 10 (4%) 13 (5%)
Dizziness 11 (4%) 3 (1%)
Diarrhea 11 (4%) 3 (1%)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 11 (4%) 10 (4%)
Rhinitis 12 (4%) 10 (4%)
Sinusitis 7 (3%) 6 (2%)
Urine Abnormal 7 (3%) 4 (1%)
Pharyngitis 8 (3%) 4 (1%)
Dysmenorrhea 9 (3%) 7 (2%)
Moniliasis 9 (3%) 8 (3%)
Mouth Dry 5 (2%) 2 (1%)
Urinary Tract Infection 6 (2%) 16 (6%)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a recognized consequence of treatment with many anti-infective agents. In these multicenter clinical trials, there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence rates of yeast vaginitis for groups of patients treated with FLAGYL ER or the vaginal comparator.

The following reactions have been reported during treatment with metronidazole:

Central Nervous System: The most serious adverse reactions reported in patients treated with metronidazole have been convulsive seizures, encephalopathy, aseptic meningitis, optic and peripheral neuropathy, the latter characterized mainly by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity. Since persistent peripheral neuropathy has been reported in some patients receiving prolonged administration of metronidazole, patients should be specifically warned about these reactions and should be told to stop the drug and report immediately to their physicians if any neurologic symptoms occur. In addition, patients have reported headache, syncope, dizziness, vertigo, incoordination, ataxia, confusion, dysarthria, irritability, depression, weakness, and insomnia (See WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal: The most common adverse reactions reported have been referable to the gastrointestinal tract, particularly nausea, sometimes accompanied by headache, anorexia, and occasionally vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric distress; abdominal cramping; and constipation.

Mouth: A sharp, unpleasant metallic taste is not unusual. Furry tongue, glossitis, and stomatitis have occurred; these may be associated with a sudden overgrowth of Candida which may occur during therapy.

Dermatologic: Erythematous rash and pruritus.

Hematopoietic: Reversible neutropenia (leukopenia); rarely, reversible thrombocytopenia.

Cardiovascular: Flattening of the T-wave may be seen in electrocardiographic tracings.

Hypersensitivity: Urticaria, erythematous rash, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, flushing, nasal congestion, dryness of the mouth (or vagina or vulva), and fever.

Renal: Dysuria, cystitis, polyuria, incontinence, and a sense of pelvic pressure. Instances of darkened urine have been reported by approximately one patient in 100,000. Although the pigment which is probably responsible for this phenomenon has not been positively identified, it is almost certainly a metabolite of metronidazole and seems to have no clinical significance.

Other: Proliferation of Candida in the vagina, dyspareunia, decrease of libido, proctitis, and fleeting joint pains sometimes resembling "serum sickness." Rare cases of pancreatitis, which generally abated on withdrawal of the drug, have been reported.

Patients with Crohn's disease are known to have an increased incidence of gastrointestinal and certain extraintestinal cancers. There have been some reports in the medical literature of breast and colon cancer in Crohn's disease patients who have been treated with metronidazole at high doses for extended periods of time. A cause and effect relationship has not been established. Crohn's disease is not an approved indication for FLAGYL ER 750 mg tablets.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

FLAGYL ER 750 mg tablets are indicated in the treatment of BV in non-pregnant women.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of FLAGYL ER and other antibacterial drugs, FLAGYL ER should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

LINCOCIN® (lincomycin HCl)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use LINCOCIN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for LINCOCIN.

WARNING

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Lincomycin and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

Because lincomycin therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections.

C.diffficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in patients previously found to be hypersensitive to lincomycin or clindamycin.

WARNINGS

See WARNING box.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Lincomycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Hypersensitivity

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and erythema multiforme (EM) have been reported in patients receiving LINCOCIN therapy. If an anaphylactic reaction or severe skin reaction occurs, LINCOCIN should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated. (see ADVERSE REACTIONS)

Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity in Pediatric Patients (Gasping Syndrome)

This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative.

The preservative benzyl alcohol has been associated with serious adverse events, including the "gasping syndrome", and death in pediatric patients. Although normal therapeutic doses of this product ordinarily deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the "gasping syndrome", the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. The risk of benzyl alcohol toxicity depends on the quantity administered and the liver and kidneys' capacity to detoxify the chemical. Premature and low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity.

Use in Meningitis — Although lincomycin appears to diffuse into cerebrospinal fluid, levels of lincomycin in the CSF may be inadequate for the treatment of meningitis.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When LINCOCIN is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.

LINCOCIN should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

LINCOCIN should be used with caution in patients with a history of asthma or significant allergies.

Certain infections may require incision and drainage or other indicated surgical procedures in addition to antibacterial therapy.

The use of LINCOCIN may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation. When patients with pre-existing monilial infections require therapy with LINCOCIN, concomitant antimonilial treatment should be given.

The serum half-life of lincomycin may be prolonged in patients with severe impairment of renal function compared to patients with normal renal function. In patients with abnormal hepatic function, serum half-life may be twofold longer than in patients with normal hepatic function.

Patients with severe impairment of renal function and/or abnormal hepatic function should be dosed with caution and serum lincomycin levels monitored during high-dose therapy. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)

Lincomycin should not be injected intravenously undiluted as a bolus, but should be infused over at least 60 minutes as directed in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Section.

Prescribing LINCOCIN in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including LINCOCIN should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When LINCOCIN is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by LINCOCIN or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterial which usually ends when the antibacterial is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterial, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibacterial. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible

Laboratory Tests

During prolonged therapy with LINCOCIN, periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed.

Drug Interactions

Lincomycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used in caution in patients receiving such agents.

Antagonism between lincomycin and erythromycin in vitro has been demonstrated. Because of possible clinical significance, the two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The carcinogenic potential of lincomycin has not been evaluated.

Lincomycin was not found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella reversion assay or the V79 Chinese hamster lung cells at the HGPRT locus. It did not induce DNA strand breaks in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells as measured by alkaline elution or chromosomal abnormalities in cultured human lymphocytes. In vivo, lincomycin was negative in both the rat and mouse micronucleus assays and it did not induce sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in the offspring of male Drosophila. However, lincomycin did cause unscheduled DNA syntheses in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

Impairment of fertility was not observed in male or female rats given oral 300 mg/kg doses of lincomycin (0.36 times the highest recommended human dose based on mg/m2).

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

LINCOCIN Sterile Solution contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol can cross the placenta. See WARNINGS.

Teratogenic Effects

There are no studies on the teratogenic potential of lincomycin in animals or adequate and well-controlled studies of pregnant women.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats using oral doses of lincomycin up to 1000 mg/kg (1.2 times the maximum daily human dose based on mg/m2) and have revealed no adverse effects on survival of offspring from birth to weaning.

Nursing Mothers

Lincomycin has been reported to appear in human milk in concentrations of 0.5 to 2.4 µg/mL. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from LINCOCIN, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing, or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

LINCOCIN Sterile Solution contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol has been associated with a fatal "Gasping Syndrome" in premature infants. See WARNINGS. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of one month have not been established. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions have been reported with the use of lincomycin and are listed by System Organ Class.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, glossitis, stomatitis, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort1, anal pruritus


1
Event has been reported with intravenous injection.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, dermatitis bullous, dermatitis exfoliative, erythema multiforme (see WARNINGS), rash, urticaria, pruritus

Infections and infestations

Vaginal infection, pseudomembranous colitis, Clostridium difficile colitis (see WARNINGS)

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenic purpura

Immune system disorders

Anaphylactic reaction (see WARNINGS), angioedema, serum sickness

Hepatobiliary disorders

Jaundice, liver function test abnormal, transaminases increased

Renal and urinary disorders

Renal impairment, oliguria, proteinuria, azotemia

Cardiac disorders

Cardio-respiratory arrest (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)

Vascular disorders

Hypotension (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), thrombophlebitis1

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo, tinnitus

Neurologic disorders

Headache, dizziness, somnolence

General disorders and administration site conditions

Injection site abscess sterile2, injection site induration2, injection site pain2, injection site irritation2


2
Reported with intramuscular injection.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

LINCOCIN Sterile Solution is indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of antibacterial associated pseudomembranous colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting lincomycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibacterial therapy.

The drug may be administered concomitantly with other antimicrobial agents when indicated.

Lincomycin is not indicated in the treatment of minor bacterial infections or viral infections.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of LINCOCIN and other antibacterial drugs, LINCOCIN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

NEOSPORIN® GU IRRIGANT STERILE (neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B sulfate)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use NEOSPORIN GU IRRIGANT STERILE safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for NEOSPORIN GU IRRIGANT STERILE.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity to neomycin, the polymyxins, or any ingredient in the solution is a contraindication to its use. A history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reaction to an aminoglycoside may also contraindicate the use of any other aminoglycoside because of the known cross-sensitivity of patients to drugs of this class.

WARNINGS

PROPHYLACTIC BLADDER CARE WITH NEOSPORIN G.U. IRRIGANT STERILE SHOULD NOT BE GIVEN WHERE THERE IS A POSSIBILITY OF SYSTEMIC ABSORPTION. NEOSPORIN G.U. IRRIGANT STERILE SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR IRRIGATION OTHER THAN FOR THE URINARY BLADDER. Systemic absorption after topical application of neomycin to open wounds, burns, and granulating surfaces is significant and serum concentrations comparable to and often higher than those attained following oral and parenteral therapy have been reported. Absorption of neomycin from the denuded bladder surface has been reported.

However, the likelihood of toxicity following topical irrigation of the intact urinary bladder with NEOSPORIN G.U. Irrigant Sterile is low since no appreciable amounts of these antibiotics enter the systemic circulation by this route if irrigation does not exceed 10 days.

NEOSPORIN G.U. Irrigant is intended for continuous prophylactic irrigation of the lumen of the intact urinary bladder of patients with indwelling catheters. Patients should be under constant supervision by a physician. Irrigation should be avoided in patients with defects in the bladder mucosa or bladder wall, such as vesical rupture, or in association with operative procedures on the bladder wall, because of the risk of toxicity due to systemic absorption following diffusion into absorptive tissues and spaces. When absorbed, neomycin and polymyxin B are nephrotoxic antibiotics, and the nephrotoxic potentials are additive. In addition, both antibiotics, when absorbed, are neurotoxins: neomycin can destroy fibers of the acoustic nerve causing permanent bilateral deafness; neomycin and polymyxin B are additive in their neuromuscular blocking effects, not only in terms of potency and duration, but also in terms of characteristics of the blocks produced.

Aminoglycosides, when absorbed, can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cross the placenta and there have been several reports of total, irreversible, bilateral, congenital deafness in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy. Although serious side effects have not been reported in the treatment of pregnant women with other aminoglycosides, the potential for harm exists. If NEOSPORIN G.U. Irrigant Sterile is used during pregnancy, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus (see PRECAUTIONS).


PRECAUTIONS

General

Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade may occur if NEOSPORIN G.U. Irrigant ingredients are systemically absorbed (see WARNINGS ). Absorption of neomycin from the denuded bladder surface has been reported. Patients with impaired renal function, infants, dehydrated patients, elderly patients, and patients receiving high doses of prolonged treatment are especially at risk for the development of toxicity.

Irrigation of the bladder with NEOSPORIN G.U. Irrigant may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. Appropriate measures should be taken if this occurs. The safety and effectiveness of the preparation for use in the care of patients with recent lower urinary tract surgery have not been established.

Urine specimens should be collected during prophylactic bladder care for urinalysis, culture, and susceptibility testing. Positive cultures suggest the presence of organisms which are resistant to the bladder rinse antibiotics.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

See WARNINGS section.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Neomycin occasionally causes skin sensitization when applied topically; however, topical application to mucus membranes rarely results in local or systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Irritation of the urinary bladder mucosa has been reported.

Signs of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity have been reported following parenteral use of these drugs and following the oral and topical use of neomycin (see WARNINGS).

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

NEOSPORIN G.U. Irrigant is indicated for short-term use (up to 10 days) as a continuous irrigant or rinse in the urinary bladder of abacteriuric patients to help prevent bacteriuria and gram-negative rod septicemia associated with the use of indwelling catheters.

Since organisms gain entrance to the bladder by way of, through, and around the catheter, significant bacteriuria is induced by bacterial multiplication in the bladder urine, in the mucoid film often present between catheter and urethra, and in other sites. Urinary tract infection may result from the repeated presence in the urine of large numbers of pathogenic bacteria. The use of closed systems with indwelling catheters has been shown to reduce the risk of infection. A three-way closed catheter system with constant neomycin-polymyxin B bladder rinse is indicated to prevent the development of infection while using indwelling catheters.

If uropathogens are isolated, they should be identified and tested for susceptibility so that appropriate antimicrobial therapy for systemic use can be initiated.

NEOSPORIN® OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION STERILE (neomycin, polymyxin B sulfates, gramicidin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use NEOSPORIN OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION STERILE safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for NEOSPORIN OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION STERILE.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution is contraindicated in individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components.

WARNINGS

NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE. NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution should never be directly introduced into the anterior chamber of the eye or injected subconjunctivally.

Topical antibiotics, particularly neomycin sulfate, may cause cutaneous sensitization. A precise incidence of hypersensitivity reactions (primarily skin rash) due to topical antibiotics is not known. The manifestations of sensitization to topical antibiotics are usually itching, reddening, and edema of the conjunctiva and eyelid. A sensitization reaction may manifest simply as a failure to heal. During long-term use of topical antibiotic products, periodic examination for such signs is advisable, and the patient should be told to discontinue the product if they are observed. Symptoms usually subside quickly on withdrawing the medication. Application of products containing these ingredients should be avoided for the patient thereafter (see PRECAUTIONS:General).


PRECAUTIONS

General

As with other antibiotic preparations, prolonged use of NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate measures should be initiated.

Bacterial resistance to NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution may also develop. If purulent discharge, inflammation, or pain becomes aggravated, the patient should discontinue use of the medication and consult a physician.

There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of topical ophthalmic products in multiple-dose containers which have been inadvertently contaminated by patients, most of whom had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface (see PRECAUTIONS:Information for Patients).

Allergic cross-reactions may occur which could prevent the use of any or all of the following antibiotics for the treatment of future infections: kanamycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, and possibly gentamicin.

Information for Patients

Patients should be instructed to avoid allowing the tip of the dispensing container to contact the eye, eyelid, fingers, or any other surface. The use of this product by more than one person may spread infection.

Patients should also be instructed that ocular products, if handled improperly, can become contaminated by common bacteria known to cause ocular infections. Serious damage to the eye and subsequent loss of vision may result from using contaminated products (see PRECAUTIONS:General).

If the condition persists or gets worse, or if a rash or other allergic reaction develops, the patient should be advised to stop use and consult a physician. Do not use this product if you are allergic to any of the listed ingredients.

Keep tightly closed when not in use. Keep out of reach of children.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential have not been conducted with polymyxin B sulfate or gramicidin. Treatment of cultured human lymphocytes in vitro with neomycin increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations at the highest concentration (80 µg/mL) tested. However, the effects of neomycin on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis in humans are unknown.

Polymyxin B has been reported to impair the motility of equine sperm, but its effects on male or female fertility are unknown.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B sulfate, or gramicidin. It is also not known whether NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of NEOSPORIN® Ophthalmic Solution did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reactions have occurred with the anti-infective components of NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution. The exact incidence is not known. Reactions occurring most often are allergic sensitization reactions including itching, swelling, and conjunctival erythema (see WARNINGS). More serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported rarely.

Local irritation on instillation has also been reported.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

NEOSPORIN Ophthalmic Solution is indicated for the topical treatment of superficial infections of the external eye and its adnexa caused by susceptible bacteria. Such infections encompass conjunctivitis, keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis, blepharitis and blepharoconjunctivitis.

PFIZERPEN® (penicillin G potassium)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PFIZERPEN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for PFIZERPEN.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.

WARNINGS

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with penicillin G, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, penicillin G should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma (see Warnings). Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy. Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP by the intravenous route in high doses (above 10 million units) should be administered slowly because of the potential adverse effects of electrolyte imbalance from the potassium content of the penicillin. Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP contains 1.68 mEq potassium and 0.3 mEq of sodium per million units. The use of antibiotics may promote overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. Indwelling intravenous catheters encourage superinfections. Should superinfection occur, appropriate measures should be taken. When indicated, incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

Prescribing Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Intramuscular Therapy

Care should be taken to avoid intravenous or accidental intraarterial administration, or injection into or near major peripheral nerves or blood vessels, since such injections may produce neurovascular damage. Particular care should be taken with IV administration because of the possibility of thrombophlebitis.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic assessment of organ system function, including frequent evaluation of electrolyte balance, hepatic, renal and hematopoietic systems, and cardiac and vascular status should be performed during prolonged therapy with high doses of intravenous penicillin G (see Adverse Reactions). If any impairment of function is suspected or known to exist, a reduction in the total dosage should be considered (see Dosage and Administration). In suspected staphylococcal infections, proper laboratory studies, including susceptibility tests should be performed. All infections due to Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci should be treated for at least 10 days.

Patients being treated for gonococcal infection should have a serologic test for syphilis before receiving penicillin. All cases of penicillin treated syphilis should receive adequate follow-up including clinical and serological examinations. The recommended follow-up varies with the stage of syphilis being treated.

Drug Interactions

Bacteriostatic antibacterials (i.e., chloramphenicol, erythromycins, sulfonamides or tetracyclines) may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided. This has been documented in vitro; however, the clinical significance of this interaction is not well-documented.

Penicillin blood levels may be prolonged by concurrent administration of probenecid which blocks the renal tubular secretion of penicillins. Other drugs may compete with penicillin G for renal tubular secretion and thus prolong the serum half-life of penicillin. These drugs include: aspirin, phenylbutazone, sulfonamides, indomethacin, thiazide diuretics, furosemide and ethacrynic acid.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

After treatment with penicillin G, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with Benedict's solution, Fehling's solution or Clinitest® tablet, but not with the enzyme-based tests, such as Clinistix® and Tes-Tape®.

Penicillin G has been associated with pseudoproteinuria by certain test methods.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long term animal studies have been conducted with this drug.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to penicillin G. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Penicillins are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillins are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Incompletely developed renal function in newborns may delay elimination of penicillin; therefore, appropriate reductions in the dosage and frequency of administration should be made in these patients. All newborns treated with penicillins should be monitored closely for clinical and laboratory evidence of toxic or adverse effects (see Precautions).

Pediatric doses are generally determined on a weight basis and should be calculated for each patient individually. Recommended guidelines for pediatric dosages are presented in Dosage and Administration.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of penicillin G Injection did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Penicillin G for Injections contains 6.8 mg (0.3 mEq) of sodium per million units. At the usual recommended doses of 10 to 20 million units per day patients would receive between 68 and 136 mg/day (3 and 6 mEq) of sodium per day. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Body as a whole

The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is a systemic reaction, that may occur after the initiation of penicillin therapy in patients with syphilis or other spirochetal infections (i.e., Lyme disease and Relapsing fever). The reaction begins one or two hours after initiation of therapy and disappears within 12 to 24 hours. It is characterized by fever, chills, myalgias, headache, exacerbation of cutaneous lesions, tachycardia, hyperventilation, vasodilation with flushing and mild hypotension. The pathogenesis of the Herxheimer reaction may be due to the release from the spirochetes of heat-stable pyrogen.

Hypersensitivity reactions

The reported incidence of allergic reactions to all penicillins ranges from 0.7 to 10 percent in different studies (see Warnings). Sensitization is usually the result of previous treatment with a penicillin, but some individuals have had immediate reactions when first treated. In such cases, it is postulated that prior exposure to penicillin may have occurred via trace amounts present in milk or vaccines.

Two types of allergic reactions to penicillin are noted clinically – immediate and delayed.

Immediate reactions usually occur within 20 minutes of administration and range in severity from urticaria and pruritus to angioneurotic edema, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, hypotension, vascular collapse and death (see Warnings). Such immediate anaphylactic reactions are very rare and usually occur after parenteral therapy, but a few cases of anaphylaxis have been reported following oral therapy. Another type of immediate reaction, an accelerated reaction, may occur between 20 minutes and 48 hours after administration and may include urticaria, pruritus, fever and, occasionally, laryngeal edema.

Delayed reactions to penicillin therapy usually occur within 1–2 weeks after initiation of therapy. Manifestations include serum sickness-like symptoms, i.e., fever, malaise, urticaria, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain and various skin rashes, ranging from maculopapular eruptions to exfoliative dermatitis.

Contact dermatitis has been observed in individuals who prepare penicillin solutions.

Gastrointestinal system

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the onset occurring during or after penicillin G treatment. Nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, black or hairy tongue, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation may occur, especially during oral therapy.

Hematologic system

Reactions include neutropenia, which resolves after penicillin therapy is discontinued; Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, an uncommon reaction, occurs in patients treated with intravenous penicillin G in doses greater than 10 million units/day and who have previously received large doses of the drug; and with large doses of penicillin, a bleeding diathesis can occur secondary to platelet dysfunction.

Metabolic

Penicillin G Potassium, USP (1 million units contains 1.7 mEq of potassium ion) may cause serious and even fatal electrolyte disturbances, i.e., hyperkalemia, when given intravenously in large doses.

Nervous system

Neurotoxic reactions including hyperreflexia, myoclonic twitches, seizures and coma have been reported following the administration of massive intravenous doses, and are more likely in patients with impaired renal function.

Urogenital system

Renal tubular damage and interstitial nephritis have been associated with large intravenous doses of penicillin G. Manifestations of this reaction may include fever, rash, eosinophilia, proteinuria, eosinophiluria, hematuria and a rise in serum urea nitrogen.

Discontinuation of penicillin G results in resolution in the majority of patients.

Local reactions

Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis may occur, and pain at the injection site has been reported with intravenous administration.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact (insert name of manufacturer) at (insert manufacturer's phone number) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or http://www.fda.gov/ for voluntary reporting of adverse reactions.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Therapy

Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.

Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be done before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to penicillin G.

Therapy with Penicillin G Potassium for Injection, USP may be initiated before results of such tests are known when there is reason to believe the infection may involve any of the organisms listed below; however, once these results become available, appropriate therapy should be continued.

CLINICAL INDICATION INFECTING ORGANISM
Septicemia, empyema, pneumonia, pericarditis, endocarditis, meningitis Streptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococcus), other β-hemolytic streptococci including groups C, H, G, L and M, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus species (non-penicillinase producing strains)
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis
Actinomycosis (cervico-facial disease and thoracic and abdominal disease) Actinomyces israelii

Botulism (adjunctive therapy to antitoxin), gas gangrene, and tetanus (adjunctive therapy to human tetanus immune globulin)
Clostridium species
Diphtheria (adjunctive therapy to antitoxin and prevention of the carrier state)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Erysipelothrix endocarditis
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Fusospirochetosis (severe infections of the oropharynx [Vincent's], lower respiratory tract and genital area)
Fusobacterium species and spirochetes
Listeria infections including meningitis and endocarditis
Listeria monocytogenes
Pasteurella infections including bacteremia and meningitis
Pasteurella multocida
Haverhill fever Streptobacillus moniliformis
Rat bite fever Spirillum minus or Streptobacillus moniliformis
Disseminated gonococcal infections Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Penicillin-susceptible)
Syphillis (congenital and neurosyphilis) Treponema pallidum
Meningococcal meningitis and/or septicemia Neisseria meningitidis
Gram-negative bacillary infections (bacteremias)
Penicillin G is not the drug of choice in the treatment of Gram-negative bacillary infections.
Gram-negative bacillary organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Penicillin G Potassium and other antibacterial drugs, Penicillin G Potassium should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

RETACRIT (epoetin alfa-epbx)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use RETACRIT safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for RETACRIT.

WARNING: ESAs INCREASE THE RISK OF DEATH, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, STROKE, VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM, THROMBOSIS OF VASCULAR ACCESS AND TUMOR PROGRESSION OR RECURRENCE

Chronic Kidney Disease:

  • In controlled trials, patients experienced greater risks for death, serious adverse cardiovascular reactions, and stroke when administered erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to target a hemoglobin level of greater than 11 g/dL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
  • No trial has identified a hemoglobin target level, ESA dose, or dosing strategy that does not increase these risks [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
  • Use the lowest RETACRIT dose sufficient to reduce the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Cancer:

  • ESAs shortened overall survival and/or increased the risk of tumor progression or recurrence in clinical studies of patients with breast, non-small cell lung, head and neck, lymphoid, and cervical cancers [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
  • To decrease these risks, as well as the risk of serious cardiovascular and thromboembolic reactions, use the lowest dose needed to avoid RBC transfusions [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
  • Use ESAs only for anemia from myelosuppressive chemotherapy [see Indications and Usage (1.3)].
  • ESAs are not indicated for patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy when the anticipated outcome is cure [see Indications and Usage (1.5)].
  • Discontinue following the completion of a chemotherapy course [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

Perisurgery:

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

RETACRIT is contraindicated in patients with:

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Increased Mortality, Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Thromboembolism

  • In controlled clinical trials of patients with CKD comparing higher hemoglobin targets (13 – 14 g/dL) to lower targets (9 – 11.3 g/dL), epoetin alfa and other ESAs increased the risk of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, thrombosis of hemodialysis vascular access, and other thromboembolic events in the higher target groups.
  • Using ESAs to target a hemoglobin level of greater than 11 g/dL increases the risk of serious adverse cardiovascular reactions and has not been shown to provide additional benefit [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Use caution in patients with coexistent cardiovascular disease and stroke [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Patients with CKD and an insufficient hemoglobin response to ESA therapy may be at even greater risk for cardiovascular reactions and mortality than other patients. A rate of hemoglobin rise of greater than 1 g/dL over 2 weeks may contribute to these risks.
  • In controlled clinical trials of patients with cancer, epoetin alfa and other ESAs increased the risks for death and serious adverse cardiovascular reactions. These adverse reactions included myocardial infarction and stroke.
  • In controlled clinical trials, ESAs increased the risk of death in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing orthopedic procedures.

The design and overall results of the 3 large trials comparing higher and lower hemoglobin targets are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Randomized Controlled Trials Showing Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with CKD
Normal Hematocrit Study (NHS)
(N = 1265)
CHOIR
(N = 1432)
TREAT
(N = 4038)
Time Period of Trial 1993 to 1996 2003 to 2006 2004 to 2009
Population CKD patients on hemodialysis with coexisting CHF or CAD, hematocrit 30 ± 3% on epoetin alfa CKD patients not on dialysis with hemoglobin < 11 g/dL not previously administered epoetin alfa CKD patients not on dialysis with type II diabetes, hemoglobin ≤ 11 g/dL
Hemoglobin Target; Higher vs. Lower (g/dL) 14.0 vs. 10.0 13.5 vs. 11.3 13.0 vs. ≥ 9.0
Median (Q1, Q3) Achieved Hemoglobin level (g/dL) 12.6 (11.6, 13.3) vs. 10.3 (10.0, 10.7) 13.0 (12.2, 13.4) vs. 11.4 (11.1, 11.6) 12.5 (12.0, 12.8) vs. 10.6 (9.9, 11.3)
Primary Endpoint All-cause mortality or non-fatal MI All-cause mortality, MI, hospitalization for CHF, or stroke All-cause mortality, MI, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and stroke
Hazard Ratio or Relative Risk (95% CI) 1.28 (1.06 – 1.56) 1.34 (1.03 – 1.74) 1.05 (0.94 – 1.17)
Adverse Outcome for Higher Target Group All-cause mortality All-cause mortality Stroke
Hazard Ratio or Relative Risk (95% CI) 1.27 (1.04 – 1.54) 1.48 (0.97 – 2.27) 1.92 (1.38 – 2.68)

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Normal Hematocrit Study (NHS): A prospective, randomized, open-label study of 1265 patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis with documented evidence of congestive heart failure or ischemic heart disease was designed to test the hypothesis that a higher target hematocrit (Hct) would result in improved outcomes compared with a lower target Hct. In this study, patients were randomized to epoetin alfa treatment targeted to a maintenance hemoglobin of either 14 ± 1 g/dL or 10 ± 1 g/dL. The trial was terminated early with adverse safety findings of higher mortality in the high hematocrit target group. Higher mortality (35% vs. 29%) was observed for the patients randomized to a target hemoglobin of 14 g/dL than for the patients randomized to a target hemoglobin of 10 g/dL. For all-cause mortality, the HR=1.27; 95% CI (1.04, 1.54); p=0.018. The incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, vascular access thrombosis, and other thrombotic events was also higher in the group randomized to a target hemoglobin of 14 g/dL.

CHOIR: A randomized, prospective trial, 1432 patients with anemia due to CKD who were not undergoing dialysis and who had not previously received epoetin alfa therapy were randomized to epoetin alfa treatment targeting a maintenance hemoglobin concentration of either 13.5 g/dL or 11.3 g/dL. The trial was terminated early with adverse safety findings. A major cardiovascular event (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for congestive heart failure) occurred in 125 of the 715 patients (18%) in the higher hemoglobin group compared to 97 of the 717 patients (14%) in the lower hemoglobin group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.34, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.74; p=0.03].

TREAT: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective trial of 4038 patients with: CKD not on dialysis (eGFR of 20 – 60 mL/min), anemia (hemoglobin levels ≤ 11 g/dL), and type 2 diabetes mellitus, patients were randomized to receive either darbepoetin alfa treatment or a matching placebo. Placebo group patients also received darbepoetin alfa when their hemoglobin levels were below 9 g/dL. The trial objectives were to demonstrate the benefit of darbepoetin alfa treatment of the anemia to a target hemoglobin level of 13 g/dL, when compared to a "placebo" group, by reducing the occurrence of either of two primary endpoints: (1) a composite cardiovascular endpoint of all-cause mortality or a specified cardiovascular event (myocardial ischemia, CHF, MI, and CVA) or (2) a composite renal endpoint of all-cause mortality or progression to end stage renal disease. The overall risks for each of the two primary endpoints (the cardiovascular composite and the renal composite) were not reduced with darbepoetin alfa treatment (see Table 1), but the risk of stroke was increased nearly two-fold in the darbepoetin alfa-treated group versus the placebo group: annualized stroke rate 2.1% vs. 1.1%, respectively, HR 1.92; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.68; p < 0.001. The relative risk of stroke was particularly high in patients with a prior stroke: annualized stroke rate 5.2% in the darbepoetin alfa-treated group and 1.9% in the placebo group, HR 3.07; 95% CI: 1.44, 6.54. Also, among darbepoetin alfa-treated subjects with a past history of cancer, there were more deaths due to all causes and more deaths adjudicated as due to cancer, in comparison with the control group.

Patients with Cancer

An increased incidence of thromboembolic reactions, some serious and life-threatening, occurred in patients with cancer treated with ESAs.

In a randomized, placebo-controlled study (Study 2 in Table 2 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]) of 939 women with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy, patients received either weekly epoetin alfa or placebo for up to a year. This study was designed to show that survival was superior when epoetin alfa was administered to prevent anemia (maintain hemoglobin levels between 12 and 14 g/dL or hematocrit between 36% and 42%). This study was terminated prematurely when interim results demonstrated a higher mortality at 4 months (8.7% vs. 3.4%) and a higher rate of fatal thrombotic reactions (1.1% vs. 0.2%) in the first 4 months of the study among patients treated with epoetin alfa. Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, at the time of study termination, the 12-month survival was lower in the epoetin alfa group than in the placebo group (70% vs. 76%; HR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.75; p = 0.012).

Patients Having Surgery

An increased incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients receiving epoetin alfa undergoing surgical orthopedic procedures was demonstrated [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In a randomized, controlled study, 680 adult patients, not receiving prophylactic anticoagulation and undergoing spinal surgery, were randomized to 4 doses of 600 Units/kg epoetin alfa (7, 14, and 21 days before surgery, and the day of surgery) and standard of care (SOC) treatment (n = 340) or to SOC treatment alone (n = 340). A higher incidence of DVTs, determined by either color flow duplex imaging or by clinical symptoms, was observed in the epoetin alfa group (16 [4.7%] patients) compared with the SOC group (7 [2.1%] patients). In addition to the 23 patients with DVTs included in the primary analysis, 19 [2.8%] patients (n = 680) experienced 1 other thrombovascular event (TVE) each (12 [3.5%] in the epoetin alfa group and 7 [2.1%] in the SOC group). Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis is strongly recommended when ESAs are used for the reduction of allogeneic RBC transfusions in surgical patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

Increased mortality was observed in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of epoetin alfa in adult patients who were undergoing CABG surgery (7 deaths in 126 patients randomized to epoetin alfa versus no deaths among 56 patients receiving placebo). Four of these deaths occurred during the period of study drug administration and all 4 deaths were associated with thrombotic events.

5.2 Increased Mortality and/or Increased Risk of Tumor Progression or Recurrence in Patients with Cancer

ESAs resulted in decreased locoregional control/progression-free survival (PFS) and/or overall survival (OS) (see Table 2).

Adverse effects on PFS and/or OS were observed in studies of patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer (Studies 1, 2, and 4), lymphoid malignancy (Study 3), and cervical cancer (Study 5); in patients with advanced head and neck cancer receiving radiation therapy (Studies 6 and 7); and in patients with non-small cell lung cancer or various malignancies who were not receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy (Studies 8 and 9).

Table 2. Randomized, Controlled Studies with Decreased Survival and/or Decreased Locoregional Control
Study/Tumor/(n) Hemoglobin Target Achieved Hemoglobin (Median; Q1, Q3*) Primary Efficacy Outcome Adverse Outcome for ESA-containing Arm
*
Q1 = 25th percentile
Q3 = 75th percentile
This study did not include a defined hemoglobin target. Doses were titrated to achieve and maintain the lowest hemoglobin level sufficient to avoid transfusion and not to exceed 12 g/dL.
Chemotherapy
Study 1
Metastatic breast cancer
(n = 2098)
≤12 g/dL 11.6 g/dL;
10.7, 12.1 g/dL
Progression-free survival (PFS) Decreased progression-free and overall survival
Study 2
Metastatic breast cancer
(n = 939)
12–14 g/dL 12.9 g/dL;
12.2, 13.3 g/dL
12-month overall survival Decreased 12-month survival
Study 3
Lymphoid malignancy
(n = 344)
13–15 g/dL (M)
13–14 g/dL (F)
11 g/dL;
9.8, 12.1 g/dL
Proportion of patients achieving a hemoglobin response Decreased overall survival
Study 4
Early breast cancer
(n = 733)
12.5–13 g/dL 13.1 g/dL;
12.5, 13.7 g/dL
Relapse-free and overall survival Decreased 3-year relapse-free and overall survival
Study 5
Cervical cancer
(n = 114)
12–14 g/dL 12.7 g/dL;
12.1, 13.3 g/dL
Progression-free and overall survival and locoregional control Decreased 3-year progression-free and overall survival and locoregional control
Radiotherapy Alone
Study 6
Head and neck cancer
(n = 351)
≥ 15 g/dL (M)
≥ 14 g/dL (F)
Not available Locoregional progression-free survival Decreased 5-year locoregional progression-free and overall survival
Study 7
Head and neck cancer
(n = 522)
14–15.5 g/dL Not available Locoregional disease control Decreased locoregional disease control
No Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy
Study 8
Non-small cell lung cancer
(n = 70)
12–14 g/dL Not available Quality of life Decreased overall survival
Study 9
Non-myeloid malignancy
(n = 989)
12–13 g/dL 10.6 g/dL;
9.4, 11.8 g/dL
RBC transfusions Decreased overall survival

Decreased Overall Survival

Study 2 was described in the previous section [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Mortality at 4 months (8.7% vs. 3.4%) was significantly higher in the epoetin alfa arm. The most common investigator-attributed cause of death within the first 4 months was disease progression; 28 of 41 deaths in the epoetin alfa arm and 13 of 16 deaths in the placebo arm were attributed to disease progression. Investigator-assessed time to tumor progression was not different between the 2 groups. Survival at 12 months was significantly lower in the epoetin alfa arm (70% vs. 76%; HR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.75; p = 0.012).

Study 3 was a randomized, double-blind study (darbepoetin alfa vs. placebo) conducted in 344 anemic patients with lymphoid malignancy receiving chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 29 months, overall mortality rates were significantly higher among patients randomized to darbepoetin alfa as compared to placebo (HR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.02,1.82).

Study 8 was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study (epoetin alfa vs. placebo) in which patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving only palliative radiotherapy or no active therapy were treated with epoetin alfa to achieve and maintain hemoglobin levels between 12 and 14 g/dL. Following an interim analysis of 70 patients (planned accrual 300 patients), a significant difference in survival in favor of the patients in the placebo arm of the study was observed (median survival 63 vs. 129 days; HR 1.84; p = 0.04).

Study 9 was a randomized, double-blind study (darbepoetin alfa vs. placebo) in 989 anemic patients with active malignant disease, neither receiving nor planning to receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. There was no evidence of a statistically significant reduction in proportion of patients receiving RBC transfusions. The median survival was shorter in the darbepoetin alfa treatment group than in the placebo group (8 months vs. 10.8 months; HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.57).

Decreased Progression-free Survival and Overall Survival

Study 1 was a randomized, open-label, multicenter study in 2,098 anemic women with metastatic breast cancer, who received first line or second line chemotherapy. This was a non inferiority study designed to rule out a 15% risk increase in tumor progression or death of epoetin alfa plus standard of care (SOC) as compared with SOC alone. The median progression free survival (PFS) per investigator assessment of disease progression was 7.4 months in each arm (HR 1.09, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.20), indicating the study objective was not met. At the time of clinical data cutoff, 1337 deaths were reported. Median overall survival in the epoetin alfa plus SOC group was 17.2 months compared with 17.4 months in the SOC alone group (HR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.18). There were more deaths from disease progression in the epoetin alfa plus SOC arm (59% vs. 56%) and more thrombotic vascular events in the epoetin alfa plus SOC arm (3% vs. 1%).

Study 4 was a randomized, open-label, controlled, factorial design study in which darbepoetin alfa was administered to prevent anemia in 733 women receiving neo-adjuvant breast cancer treatment. A final analysis was performed after a median follow-up of approximately 3 years. The 3-year survival rate was lower (86% vs. 90%; HR 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93, 2.18) and the 3-year relapse-free survival rate was lower (72% vs. 78%; HR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.79) in the darbepoetin alfa-treated arm compared to the control arm.

Study 5 was a randomized, open-label, controlled study that enrolled 114 of a planned 460 cervical cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive epoetin alfa to maintain hemoglobin between 12 and 14 g/dL or to RBC transfusion support as needed. The study was terminated prematurely due to an increase in thromboembolic adverse reactions in epoetin alfa-treated patients compared to control (19% vs. 9%). Both local recurrence (21% vs. 20%) and distant recurrence (12% vs. 7%) were more frequent in epoetin alfa-treated patients compared to control. Progression-free survival at 3 years was lower in the epoetin alfa-treated group compared to control (59% vs. 62%; HR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.91). Overall survival at 3 years was lower in the epoetin alfa-treated group compared to control (61% vs. 71%; HR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.68, 2.42).

Study 6 was a randomized, placebo-controlled study in 351 head and neck cancer patients where epoetin beta or placebo was administered to achieve target hemoglobins ≥ 14 and ≥ 15 g/dL for women and men, respectively. Locoregional progression-free survival was significantly shorter in patients receiving epoetin beta (HR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.14; p = 0.0008) with medians of 406 days and 745 days in the epoetin beta and placebo arms, respectively. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients receiving epoetin beta (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.84; p = 0.02).

Decreased Locoregional Control

Study 7 was a randomized, open-label, controlled study conducted in 522 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck receiving radiation therapy alone (no chemotherapy) who were randomized to receive darbepoetin alfa to maintain hemoglobin levels of 14 to 15.5 g/dL or no darbepoetin alfa. An interim analysis performed on 484 patients demonstrated that locoregional control at 5 years was significantly shorter in patients receiving darbepoetin alfa (RR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.96; p = 0.02). Overall survival was shorter in patients receiving darbepoetin alfa (RR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.68; p = 0.08).

5.3 Hypertension

RETACRIT is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Following initiation and titration of epoetin alfa, approximately 25% of patients on dialysis required initiation of or increases in antihypertensive therapy; hypertensive encephalopathy and seizures have been reported in patients with CKD receiving epoetin alfa.

Appropriately control hypertension prior to initiation of and during treatment with RETACRIT. Reduce or withhold RETACRIT if blood pressure becomes difficult to control. Advise patients of the importance of compliance with antihypertensive therapy and dietary restrictions [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.4 Seizures

Epoetin alfa products, including RETACRIT, increase the risk of seizures in patients with CKD. During the first several months following initiation of RETACRIT, monitor patients closely for premonitory neurologic symptoms. Advise patients to contact their healthcare practitioner for new-onset seizures, premonitory symptoms or change in seizure frequency.

5.5 Lack or Loss of Hemoglobin Response to RETACRIT

For lack or loss of hemoglobin response to RETACRIT, initiate a search for causative factors (e.g., iron deficiency, infection, inflammation, bleeding). If typical causes of lack or loss of hemoglobin response are excluded, evaluate for PRCA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. In the absence of PRCA, follow dosing recommendations for management of patients with an insufficient hemoglobin response to RETACRIT therapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.6 Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Cases of PRCA and of severe anemia, with or without other cytopenias that arise following the development of neutralizing antibodies to erythropoietin have been reported in patients treated with epoetin alfa. This has been reported predominantly in patients with CKD receiving ESAs by subcutaneous administration. PRCA has also been reported in patients receiving ESAs for anemia related to hepatitis C treatment (an indication for which RETACRIT is not approved).

If severe anemia and low reticulocyte count develop during treatment with RETACRIT, withhold RETACRIT and evaluate patients for neutralizing antibodies to erythropoietin. Contact Hospira, Inc., a Pfizer company (1-800-438-1985) to perform assays for binding and neutralizing antibodies. Permanently discontinue RETACRIT in patients who develop PRCA following treatment with RETACRIT or other erythropoietin protein drugs. Do not switch patients to other ESAs.

5.7 Serious Allergic Reactions

Serious allergic reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, skin rash, and urticaria may occur with epoetin alfa products. Immediately and permanently discontinue RETACRIT and administer appropriate therapy if a serious allergic or anaphylactic reaction occurs.

5.8 Severe Cutaneous Reactions

Blistering and skin exfoliation reactions including Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), have been reported in patients treated with ESAs (including epoetin alfa) in the postmarketing setting. Discontinue RETACRIT therapy immediately if a severe cutaneous reaction, such as SJS/TEN, is suspected.

5.9 Risk in Patients with Phenylketonuria

Phenylalanine can be harmful to patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). RETACRIT contains phenylalanine, a component of aspartame. Each 1 mL single-dose vial of 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 10,000, and 40,000 Units of epoetin alfa-epbx injection contains 0.5 mg of phenylalanine. Before prescribing RETACRIT to a patient with PKU, consider the combined daily amount of phenylalanine from all sources, including RETACRIT.

5.10 Dialysis Management

Patients may require adjustments in their dialysis prescriptions after initiation of RETACRIT. Patients receiving RETACRIT may require increased anticoagulation with heparin to prevent clotting of the extracorporeal circuit during hemodialysis.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of other drugs and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Adult Patients

Three double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, including 244 patients with CKD on dialysis, were used to identify the adverse reactions to epoetin alfa. In these studies, the mean age of patients was 48 years (range: 20 to 80 years). One hundred and thirty-three (55%) patients were men. The racial distribution was as follows: 177 (73%) patients were white, 48 (20%) patients were black, 4 (2%) patients were Asian, 12 (5%) patients were other, and racial information was missing for 3 (1%) patients.

Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, including 210 patients with CKD not on dialysis, were used to identify the adverse reactions to epoetin alfa. In these studies, the mean age of patients was 57 years (range: 24 to 79 years). One hundred and twenty-one (58%) patients were men. The racial distribution was as follows: 164 (78%) patients were white, 38 (18%) patients were black, 3 (1%) patients were Asian, 3 (1%) patients were other, and racial information was missing for 2 (1%) patients.

The adverse reactions with a reported incidence of ≥ 5% in epoetin alfa-treated patients and that occurred at a ≥ 1% higher frequency than in placebo-treated patients are shown in the table below:

Table 3. Adverse Reactions in Patients with CKD on Dialysis
Adverse Reaction Epoetin alfa-treated Patients
(n = 148)
Placebo-treated Patients
(n = 96)
Hypertension 27.7% 12.5%
Arthralgia 16.2% 3.1%
Muscle spasm 7.4% 6.3%
Pyrexia 10.1% 8.3%
Dizziness 9.5% 8.3%
Medical Device Malfunction (artificial kidney clotting during dialysis) 8.1% 4.2%
Vascular Occlusion (vascular access thrombosis) 8.1% 2.1%
Upper respiratory tract infection 6.8% 5.2%

An additional serious adverse reaction that occurred in less than 5% of epoetin alfa-treated dialysis patients and greater than placebo was thrombosis (2.7% epoetin alfa and 1% placebo) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

The adverse reactions with a reported incidence of ≥ 5% in epoetin alfa-treated patients and that occurred at a ≥ 1% higher frequency than in placebo-treated patients are shown in the table below:

Table 4. Adverse Reactions in Patients with CKD Not on Dialysis
Adverse Reactions Epoetin alfa-treated Patients
(n = 131)
Placebo-treated Patients
(n = 79)
Hypertension 13.7% 10.1%
Arthralgia 12.2% 7.6%

Additional serious adverse reactions that occurred in less than 5% of epoetin alfa-treated patients not on dialysis and greater than placebo were erythema (0.8% epoetin alfa and 0% placebo) and myocardial infarction (0.8% epoetin alfa and 0% placebo) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Pediatric Patients

In pediatric patients with CKD on dialysis, the pattern of adverse reactions was similar to that found in adults.

Zidovudine-treated Patients with HIV-infection

A total of 297 zidovudine-treated patients with HIV-infection were studied in 4 placebo-controlled studies. A total of 144 (48%) patients were randomly assigned to receive epoetin alfa and 153 (52%) patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo. Epoetin alfa was administered at doses between 100 and 200 Units/kg 3 times weekly subcutaneously for up to 12 weeks.

For the combined epoetin alfa treatment groups, a total of 141 (98%) men and 3 (2%) women between the ages of 24 and 64 years were enrolled. The racial distribution of the combined epoetin alfa treatment groups was as follows: 129 (90%) white, 8 (6%) black, 1 (1%) Asian, and 6 (4%) other.

In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 3 months duration involving approximately 300 zidovudine-treated patients with HIV-infection, adverse reactions with an incidence of ≥ 1% in patients treated with epoetin alfa were:

Table 5. Adverse Reactions in Zidovudine-treated Patients with HIV-infection
Adverse Reaction Epoetin alfa
(n = 144)
Placebo
(n = 153)
Pyrexia 42% 34%
Cough 26% 14%
Rash 19% 7%
Injection site irritation 7% 4%
Urticaria 3% 1%
Respiratory tract congestion 1% Not reported
Pulmonary embolism 1% Not reported

Patients with cancer on Chemotherapy

The data below were obtained in Study C1, a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that enrolled 344 patients with anemia secondary to chemotherapy. There were 333 patients who were evaluable for safety; 168 of 174 patients (97%) randomized to epoetin alfa received at least 1 dose of study drug, and 165 of 170 patients (97%) randomized to placebo received at least 1 placebo dose. For the once weekly epoetin alfa treatment group, a total of 76 men (45%) and 92 women (55%) between the ages of 20 and 88 years were treated. The racial distribution of the epoetin alfa-treatment group was 158 white (94%) and 10 black (6%). Epoetin alfa was administered once weekly for an average of 13 weeks at a dose of 20,000 to 60,000 IU subcutaneously (mean weekly dose was 49,000 IU).

The adverse reactions with a reported incidence of ≥ 5% in epoetin alfa-treated patients that occurred at a higher frequency than in placebo-treated patients are shown in the table below:

Table 6. Adverse Reactions in Cancer Patients with Cancer
Adverse Reaction Epoetin alfa
(n = 168)
Placebo
(n = 165)
Nausea 35% 30%
Vomiting 20% 16%
Myalgia 10% 5%
Arthralgia 10% 6%
Stomatitis 10% 8%
Cough 9% 7%
Weight decrease 9% 5%
Leukopenia 8% 7%
Bone pain 7% 4%
Rash 7% 5%
Hyperglycemia 6% 4%
Insomnia 6% 2%
Headache 5% 4%
Depression 5% 4%
Dysphagia 5% 2%
Hypokalemia 5% 3%
Thrombosis 5% 3%

Surgery Patients

Four hundred sixty-one patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery were studied in a placebo-controlled study (S1) and a comparative dosing study (2 dosing regimens, S2). A total of 358 patients were randomly assigned to receive epoetin alfa and 103 (22%) patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo. Epoetin alfa was administered daily at a dose of 100 to 300 IU/kg subcutaneously for 15 days or at 600 IU/kg once weekly for 4 weeks.

For the combined epoetin alfa treatment groups, a total of 90 (25%) men and 268 (75%) women between the ages of 29 and 89 years were enrolled. The racial distribution of the combined epoetin alfa treatment groups was as follows: 288 (80%) white, 64 (18%) black, 1 (< 1%) Asian, and 5 (1%) other.

The adverse reactions with a reported incidence of ≥ 1% in epoetin alfa-treated patients that occurred at a higher frequency than in placebo-treated patients are shown in the table below:

Table 7. Adverse Reactions in Surgery Patients
Adverse Reaction Study S1 Study S2
Epoetin alfa
300 U/kg
Epoetin alfa
100 U/kg
Placebo Epoetin alfa
600 U/kg × 4 weeks
Epoetin alfa
300 U/kg × 15 days
(n = 112)* (n = 101)* (n = 103)* (n = 73) (n = 72)
*
Study included patients undergoing orthopedic surgery treated with epoetin alfa or placebo for 15 days.
Study included patients undergoing orthopedic surgery treated with epoetin alfa 600 U/kg weekly for 4 weeks or 300 U/kg daily for 15 days.
DVTs were determined by clinical symptoms.
Nausea 47% 43% 45% 45% 56%
Vomiting 21% 12% 14% 19% 28%
Pruritus 16% 16% 14% 12% 21%
Headache 13% 11% 9% 10% 18%
Injection site pain 13% 9% 8% 12% 11%
Chills 7% 4% 1% 1% 0%
Deep vein thrombosis 6% 3% 3% 0% 0%
Cough 5% 4% 0% 4% 4%
Hypertension 5% 3% 5% 5% 6%
Rash 2% 2% 1% 3% 3%
Edema 1% 2% 2% 1% 3%

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of epoetin alfa.

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

6.3 Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to epoetin alfa with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Neutralizing antibodies to epoetin alfa that cross-react with endogenous erythropoietin and other ESAs can result in PRCA or severe anemia (with or without other cytopenias) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Anemia Due to Chronic Kidney Disease

RETACRIT is indicated for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD), including patients on dialysis and not on dialysis to decrease the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion.

1.2 Anemia Due to Zidovudine in Patients with HIV-infection

RETACRIT is indicated for the treatment of anemia due to zidovudine administered at ≤ 4,200 mg/week in patients with HIV-infection with endogenous serum erythropoietin levels of ≤ 500 mUnits/mL.

1.3 Anemia Due to Chemotherapy in Patients with Cancer

RETACRIT is indicated for the treatment of anemia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies where anemia is due to the effect of concomitant myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and upon initiation, there is a minimum of two additional months of planned chemotherapy.

1.4 Reduction of Allogeneic Red Blood Cell Transfusions in Patients Undergoing Elective, Noncardiac, Nonvascular Surgery

RETACRIT is indicated to reduce the need for allogeneic RBC transfusions among patients with perioperative hemoglobin > 10 to ≤ 13 g/dL who are at high risk for perioperative blood loss from elective, noncardiac, nonvascular surgery. RETACRIT is not indicated for patients who are willing to donate autologous blood pre-operatively.

1.5 Limitations of Use

RETACRIT has not been shown to improve quality of life, fatigue, or patient well-being.

RETACRIT is not indicated for use:

  • In patients with cancer receiving hormonal agents, biologic products, or radiotherapy, unless also receiving concomitant myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
  • In patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy when the anticipated outcome is cure.
  • In patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy in whom the anemia can be managed by transfusion.
  • In patients scheduled for surgery who are willing to donate autologous blood.
  • In patients undergoing cardiac or vascular surgery.
  • As a substitute for RBC transfusions in patients who require immediate correction of anemia.

SYNERCID® (quinupristin, dalfopristin)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use SYNERCID safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for SYNERCID.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Synercid is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to Synercid, or with prior hypersensitivity to other streptogramins (e.g., pristinamycin or virginiamycin).

WARNINGS

Drug Interactions

In vitro drug interaction studies have demonstrated that Synercid significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism of cyclosporin A, midazolam, nifedipine and terfenadine. In addition, 24 subjects given Synercid 7.5 mg/kg q8h for 2 days and 300 mg of cyclosporine on day 3 showed an increase of 63% in the AUC of cyclosporine, an increase of 30% in the Cmax of cyclosporine, a 77% increase in the t1/2 of cyclosporine, and, a decrease of 34% in the clearance of cyclosporine. Therapeutic level monitoring of cyclosporine should be performed when cyclosporine must be used concomitantly with Synercid.

It is reasonable to expect that the concomitant administration of Synercid and other drugs primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme system may likely result in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs that could increase or prolong their therapeutic effect and/or increase adverse reactions. (See Table below.) Therefore, coadministration of Synercid with drugs which are cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates and possess a narrow therapeutic window requires caution and monitoring of these drugs (e.g., cyclosporine), whenever possible. Concomitant medications metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme system that may prolong the QTc interval should be avoided.

Concomitant administration of Synercid and nifedipine (repeated oral doses) and midazolam (intravenous bolus dose) in healthy volunteers led to elevated plasma concentrations of these drugs. The Cmax increased by 18% and 14% (median values) and the AUC increased by 44% and 33% for nifedipine and midazolam, respectively.

Table 2: Selected Drugs That Are Predicted to Have Plasma Concentrations Increased by Synercid *
*
This list of drugs is not all inclusive.
Antihistamines: astemizole, terfenadine
Anti-HIV (NNRTIs and Protease inhibitors): delavirdine, nevirapine, indinavir, ritonavir
Antineoplastic agents: vinca alkaloids (e.g., vinblastine), docetaxel, paclitaxel
Benzodiazepines: midazolam, diazepam
Calcium channel blockers: dihydropyridines (e.g., nifedipine), verapamil, diltiazem
Cholesterol-lowering agents: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., lovastatin)
GI motility agents: cisapride
Immunosuppressive agents: cyclosporine, tacrolimus
Steroids: methylprednisolone
Other: carbamazepine, quinidine, lidocaine, disopyramide

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Synercid, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Synercid in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Venous Irritation

Following completion of a peripheral infusion, the vein should be flushed with 5% Dextrose in Water solution to minimize venous irritation. DO NOT FLUSH with saline or heparin after Synercid administration because of incompatibility concerns.

If moderate to severe venous irritation occurs following peripheral administration of Synercid diluted in 250 mL of Dextrose 5% in water, consideration should be given to increasing the infusion volume to 500 or 750 mL, changing the infusion site, or infusing by a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) or a central venous catheter. In clinical trials, concomitant administration of hydrocortisone or diphenhydramine did not appear to alleviate venous pain or inflammation.

Rate of Infusion

In animal studies toxicity was higher when Synercid was administered as a bolus compared to slow infusion. However, the safety of an intravenous bolus of Synercid has not been studied in humans. Clinical trial experience has been exclusively with an intravenous duration of 60 minutes and, thus, other infusion rates cannot be recommended.

Arthralgias/Myalgias

Episodes of arthralgia and myalgia, some severe, have been reported in patients treated with Synercid. In some patients, improvement has been noted with a reduction in dose frequency to q12h. In those patients available for follow-up, treatment discontinuation has been followed by resolution of symptoms. The etiology of these myalgias and arthralgias is under investigation.

Superinfections

The use of antibiotics may promote the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Should superinfection occur during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Hyperbilirubinemia

Elevations of total bilirubin greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal were noted in approximately 25% of patients in the non-comparative studies. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS: Non-Comparative Trials.) In some patients, isolated hyperbilirubinemia (primarily conjugated) can occur during treatment, possibly resulting from competition between Synercid and bilirubin for excretion. Of note, in the comparative trials, elevations in ALT and AST occurred at a similar frequency in both the Synercid and comparator groups.

Information for Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Synercid should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Synercid is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Synercid or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Drug Interactions

In vitro drug interaction studies have shown that Synercid significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4. (See WARNINGS.)

Synercid does not significantly inhibit human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 2E1. Therefore, clinical interactions with drugs metabolized by these cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are not expected.

A drug interaction between Synercid and digoxin cannot be excluded but is unlikely to occur via CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition. Synercid has shown in vitro activity (MICs of 0.25 mcg/mL when tested on two strains) against Eubacterium lentum. Digoxin is metabolized in part by bacteria in the gut and as such, a drug interaction based on Synercid's inhibition of digoxin's gut metabolism (by Eubacterium lentum) may be possible.

In vitro combination testing of Synercid with aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not show antagonism.

In vitro combination testing of Synercid with prototype drugs of the following classes: aminoglycosides (gentamicin), β-lactams (cefepime, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), glycopeptides (vancomycin), quinolones (ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline) and also chloramphenicol against enterococci and staphylococci did not show antagonism.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animals have not been conducted with Synercid. Five genetic toxicity tests were performed. Synercid, dalfopristin, and quinupristin were tested in the bacterial reverse mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cell HGPRT gene mutation assay, the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rat hepatocytes, the Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosome aberration assay, and the mouse micronucleus assay in bone marrow. Dalfopristin was associated with the production of structural chromosome aberrations when tested in the Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosome aberration assay. Synercid and quinupristin were negative in this assay. Synercid, dalfopristin, and quinupristin were all negative in the other four genetic toxicity assays.

No impairment of fertility or perinatal/postnatal development was observed in rats at doses up to 12 to 18 mg/kg (approximately 0.3 to 0.4 times the human dose based on body-surface area).

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Reproductive studies have been performed in mice at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (approximately half the human dose based on body-surface area), in rats at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.5 times the human dose based on body-surface area), and in rabbits at doses up to 12 mg/kg/day (approximately half the human dose based on body-surface area) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Synercid.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies with Synercid in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

In lactating rats, Synercid was excreted in milk. It is not known whether Synercid is excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Synercid is administered to a nursing woman.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Following a single 1-hour infusion of Synercid (7.5 mg/kg) to patients with hepatic insufficiency, plasma concentrations were significantly increased. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations.) However, the effect of dose reduction or increase in dosing interval on the pharmacokinetics of Synercid in these patients has not been studied. Therefore, no recommendations can be made at this time regarding the appropriate dose modification.

Pediatric Use

Synercid has been used in a limited number of pediatric patients under emergency-use conditions at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg q8h or q12h. However, the safety and effectiveness of Synercid in patients under 16 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

In phase 3 comparative trials of Synercid, 37% of patients (n=404) were ≥65 years of age, of which 145 were ≥75 years of age. In the phase 3 non-comparative trials, 29% of patients (n=346) were ≥65 years of age, of which 112 were ≥75 years of age. There were no apparent differences in the frequency, type, or severity of related adverse reactions including cardiovascular events between elderly and younger individuals.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The safety of Synercid was evaluated in 1099 patients enrolled in 5 comparative clinical trials. Additionally, 4 non-comparative clinical trials (3 prospective and 1 retrospective in design) were conducted in which 1199 patients received Synercid for infections due to Gram-positive pathogens for which no other treatment option was available. In non-comparative trials, the patients were severely ill, often with multiple co-morbidities or physiological impairments, and may have been intolerant to or failed other antibacterial therapies.

COMPARATIVE TRIALS

ADVERSE REACTION SUMMARY – ALL COMPARATIVE STUDIES

Safety data are available from five comparative clinical studies (n= 1099 Synercid; n= 1095 comparator). One of the deaths in the comparative studies was assessed as possibly related to Synercid. The most frequent reasons for discontinuation due to drug-related adverse reactions were as follows:

Table 3: Percent (%) of Patients Discontinuing Therapy by Reaction Type
Type Synercid Comparator
Venous 9.2 2.0
Non-venous 9.6 4.3
-Rash 1.0 0.5
-Nausea 0.9 0.6
-Vomiting 0.5 0.5
-Pain 0.5 0.0
-Pruritus 0.5 0.3

CLINICAL REACTIONS – ALL COMPARATIVE STUDIES

Adverse reactions with an incidence of ≥1% and possibly or probably related to Synercid administration include:

Table 4: Adverse Reactions with an Incidence of ≥1% and Possibly or Probably Related to Synercid Administration
Adverse Reactions % of patients with adverse reactions
Synercid Comparator
Inflammation at infusion site 42.0 25.0
Pain at infusion site 40.0 23.7
Edema at infusion site 17.3 9.5
Infusion site reaction 13.4 10.1
Nausea 4.6 7.2
Thrombophlebitis 2.4 0.3
Diarrhea 2.7 3.2
Vomiting 2.7 3.8
Rash 2.5 1.4
Headache 1.6 0.9
Pruritus 1.5 1.1
Pain 1.5 0.1

Additional adverse reactions that were possibly or probably related to Synercid with an incidence less than 1% within each body system are listed below:

Body as a Whole: abdominal pain, worsening of underlying illness, allergic reaction, chest pain, fever, infection;

Cardiovascular: palpitation, phlebitis;

Digestive: constipation, dyspepsia, oral moniliasis, pancreatitis, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, stomatitis;

Metabolic: gout, peripheral edema;

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, myalgia, myasthenia;

Nervous: anxiety, confusion, dizziness, hypertonia, insomnia, leg cramps, paresthesia, vasodilation;

Respiratory: dyspnea, pleural effusion;

Skin and Appendages: maculopapular rash, sweating, urticaria;

Urogenital: hematuria, vaginitis

CLINICAL REACTIONS – SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE STUDIES

In two of the five comparative clinical trials Synercid (n=450) and comparator regimens (e.g., oxacillin/vancomycin or cefazolin/vancomycin; n=443) were studied for safety and efficacy in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. The adverse event profile seen in the Synercid patients in these two studies differed significantly from that seen in the other comparative studies. What follows is safety data from these two studies.

Discontinuation of therapy was most frequently due to the following drug related events:

Table 5: Drug Related Events Most Frequently Leading to Discontinuation of Therapy
% of patients discontinuing therapy by reaction type
Type Synercid Comparator
Venous 12.0 2.0
Non-venous 11.8 4.0
-Rash 2.0 0.9
-Nausea 1.1 0.0
-Vomiting 0.9 0.0
-Pain 0.9 0.0
-Pruritus 0.9 0.5

Venous adverse events were seen predominately in patients who had peripheral infusions. The most frequently reported venous and non-venous adverse reactions possibly or probably related to study drug were:

Table 6: The Most Frequently Reported Venous and Non-Venous Adverse Reactions Possibly or Probably Related to Study Drug
% of patients with adverse reactions
Synercid Comparator
Venous 68.0 32.7
-Pain at infusion site 44.7 17.8
-Inflammation at infusion site 38.2 14.7
-Edema at infusion site 18.0 7.2
-Infusion site reaction 11.6 3.6
Non-venous 24.7 13.1
-Nausea 4.0 2.0
-Vomiting 3.7 1.0
-Rash 3.1 1.3
-Pain 3.1 0.2

There were eight (1.7%) episodes of thrombus or thrombophlebitis in the Synercid arms and none in the comparator arms.

LABORATORY EVENTS-ALL COMPARATIVE STUDIES

Table 7 shows the number (%) of patients exhibiting laboratory values above or below the clinically relevant "critical" values during treatment phase (with an incidence of 0.1% or greater in either treatment group).

Table 7: Laboratory Events
Parameter Critically High or Low Value Synercid Critically High or Low Comparator Critically High or Low
AST > 10 × ULN 9 (0.9) 2 (0.2)
ALT > 10 × ULN 4 (0.4) 4 (0.4)
Total Bilirubin > 5 × ULN 9 (0.9) 2 (0.2)
Conjugated Bilirubin > 5 × ULN 29 (3.1) 12 (1.3)
LDH > 5 × ULN 10 (2.6) 8 (2.1)
Alk Phosphatase > 5 × ULN 3 (0.3) 7 (0.7)
Gamma-GT > 10 × ULN 19 (1.9) 10 (1.0)
CPK > 10 × ULN 6 (1.6) 5 (1.4)
Creatinine ≥ 440 μmoL/L 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
BUN ≥ 35.5 mmoL/L 2 (0.3) 9 (1.2)
Blood Glucose > 22.2 mmoL/L 11 (1.3) 11 (1.3)
< 2.2 mmoL/L 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
Bicarbonates > 40 mmoL/L 2 (0.3) 3 (0.5)
< 10 mmoL/L 3 (0.5) 3 (0.5)
CO2 > 50 mmoL/L 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
< 15 mmoL/L 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0)
Sodium > 160 mmoL/L 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
< 120 mmoL/L 5 (0.5) 3 (0.3)
Potassium > 6.0 mmoL/L 3 (0.3) 6 (0.6)
< 2.0 mmoL/L 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)
Hemoglobin < 8 g/dL 25 (2.6) 16 (1.6)
Hematocrit > 60% 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0)
Platelets > 1,000,000/mm3 2 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
< 50,000/mm3 6 (0.6) 7 (0.7)

NON-COMPARATIVE TRIALS

CLINICAL ADVERSE REACTIONS

Approximately one-third of patients discontinued therapy in these trials due to adverse events. However, the discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions assessed by the investigator as possibly or probably related to Synercid therapy was approximately 5.0%.

There were three prospectively designed non-comparative clinical trials in patients (n = 972) treated with Synercid. One of these studies (301), had more complete documentation than the other two (398A and 398B). The most common events probably or possibly related to therapy are presented in Table 8:

Table 8: The Most Common Events Probably or Possibly Related to Therapy
Adverse Reactions % of patients with adverse reaction
Study 301 Study 398A Study 398B
Arthralgia 7.8 5.2 4.3
Myalgia 5.1 0.95 3.1
Arthralgia and Myalgia 7.4 3.3 6.8
Nausea 3.8 2.8 4.9

The percentage of patients who experienced severe related arthralgia and myalgia was 3.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The percentage of patients who discontinued treatment due to related arthralgia and myalgia was 2.3% and 1.8%, respectively.

LABORATORY EVENTS

The most frequently observed abnormalities in laboratory studies were in total and conjugated bilirubin, with increases greater than 5 times upper limit of normal, irrespective of relationship to Synercid, reported in 25.0% and 34.6% of patients, respectively. The percentage of patients who discontinued treatment due to increased total and conjugated bilirubin was 2.7% and 2.3%, respectively. Of note, 46.5% and 59.0% of patients had high baseline total and conjugated bilirubin levels before study entry.

OTHER

Serious adverse reactions in clinical trials, including non-comparative studies, considered possibly or probably related to Synercid administration with an incidence < 0.1% include: acidosis, anaphylactoid reaction, apnea, arrhythmia, bone pain, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebrovascular accident, coagulation disorder, convulsion, dysautonomia, encephalopathy, grand mal convulsion, hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, heart arrest, hepatitis, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoplastic anemia, hypoventilation, hypovolemia, hypoxia, jaundice, mesenteric arterial occlusion, neck rigidity, neuropathy, pancytopenia, paraplegia, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, respiratory distress syndrome, shock, skin ulcer, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, tremor, ventricular extrasystoles and ventricular fibrillation. Cases of hypotension and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were reported in less than 0.2% of patients.

Post-marketing Experiences

In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, reports of angioedema and anaphylactic shock have been identified during post approval use of Synercid.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Synercid and other antibacterial drugs, Synercid should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Synercid is indicated in adults for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms.

Complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible) or Streptococcus pyogenes. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)

TYGACIL® (tigecycline)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use TYGACIL safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for TYGACIL.

WARNING: ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY

An increase in all-cause mortality has been observed in a meta-analysis of Phase 3 and 4 clinical trials in TYGACIL-treated patients versus comparator. The cause of this mortality risk difference of 0.6% (95% CI 0.1, 1.2) has not been established. TYGACIL should be reserved for use in situations when alternative treatments are not suitable [see Indications and Usage (1.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

TYGACIL is contraindicated for use in patients who have known hypersensitivity to tigecycline. Reactions have included anaphylactic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 All-Cause Mortality

An increase in all-cause mortality has been observed in a meta-analysis of Phase 3 and 4 clinical trials in TYGACIL-treated patients versus comparator-treated patients. In all 13 Phase 3 and 4 trials that included a comparator, death occurred in 4.0% (150/3788) of patients receiving TYGACIL and 3.0% (110/3646) of patients receiving comparator drugs. In a pooled analysis of these trials, based on a random effects model by trial weight, the adjusted risk difference of all-cause mortality was 0.6% (95% CI 0.1, 1.2) between TYGACIL and comparator-treated patients. An analysis of mortality in all trials conducted for approved indications (cSSSI, cIAI, and CABP), including post-market trials showed an adjusted mortality rate of 2.5% (66/2640) for tigecycline and 1.8% (48/2628) for comparator, respectively. The adjusted risk difference for mortality stratified by trial weight was 0.6% (95% CI 0.0, 1.2).

The cause of this mortality difference has not been established. Generally, deaths were the result of worsening infection, complications of infection or underlying co-morbidities. TYGACIL should be reserved for use in situations when alternative treatments are not suitable [see Boxed Warning, Indications and Usage (1.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.2 Mortality Imbalance and Lower Cure Rates in Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia

A trial of patients with hospital acquired, including ventilator-associated, pneumonia failed to demonstrate the efficacy of TYGACIL. In this trial, patients were randomized to receive TYGACIL (100 mg initially, then 50 mg every 12 hours) or a comparator. In addition, patients were allowed to receive specified adjunctive therapies. The sub-group of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia who received TYGACIL had lower cure rates (47.9% versus 70.1% for the clinically evaluable population).

In this trial, greater mortality was seen in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia who received TYGACIL (25/131 [19.1%] versus 15/122 [12.3%] in comparator-treated patients) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Particularly high mortality was seen among TYGACIL-treated patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and bacteremia at baseline (9/18 [50.0%] versus 1/13 [7.7%] in comparator-treated patients).

5.3 Anaphylactic Reactions

Anaphylactic reactions have been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including TYGACIL, and may be life-threatening. TYGACIL is structurally similar to tetracycline-class antibiotics and should be avoided in patients with known hypersensitivity to tetracycline-class antibiotics.

5.4 Hepatic Adverse Effects

Increases in total bilirubin concentration, prothrombin time and transaminases have been seen in patients treated with tigecycline. Isolated cases of significant hepatic dysfunction and hepatic failure have been reported in patients being treated with tigecycline. Some of these patients were receiving multiple concomitant medications. Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during tigecycline therapy should be monitored for evidence of worsening hepatic function and evaluated for risk/benefit of continuing tigecycline therapy. Hepatic dysfunction may occur after the drug has been discontinued.

5.5 Pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis, including fatal cases, has occurred in association with tigecycline treatment. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis should be considered in patients taking tigecycline who develop clinical symptoms, signs, or laboratory abnormalities suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Cases have been reported in patients without known risk factors for pancreatitis. Patients usually improve after tigecycline discontinuation. Consideration should be given to the cessation of the treatment with tigecycline in cases suspected of having developed pancreatitis [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.6 Fetal Harm

TYGACIL may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking tigecycline, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Results of animal studies indicate that tigecycline crosses the placenta and is found in fetal tissues. Decreased fetal weights in rats and rabbits (with associated delays in ossification) and fetal loss in rabbits have been observed with tigecycline [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

5.7 Tooth Discoloration

The use of TYGACIL during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy, and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). Results of studies in rats with TYGACIL have shown bone discoloration. TYGACIL should not be used during tooth development unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated.

5.8 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including TYGACIL, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.9 Sepsis/Septic Shock in Patients With Intestinal Perforation

Monotherapy with tigecycline should be avoided in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) secondary to clinically apparent intestinal perforation. In cIAI studies (n=1642), 6 patients treated with TYGACIL and 2 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin presented with intestinal perforations and developed sepsis/septic shock. The 6 patients treated with TYGACIL had higher APACHE II scores (median = 13) versus the 2 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin (APACHE II scores = 4 and 6). Due to differences in baseline APACHE II scores between treatment groups and small overall numbers, the relationship of this outcome to treatment cannot be established.

5.10 Tetracycline-Class Adverse Effects

TYGACIL is structurally similar to tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs and may have similar adverse effects. Such effects may include: photosensitivity, pseudotumor cerebri, and anti-anabolic action (which has led to increased BUN, azotemia, acidosis, and hyperphosphatemia).

5.11 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing TYGACIL in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical trials, 2514 patients were treated with TYGACIL. TYGACIL was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 7% of patients compared to 6% for all comparators. Table 1 shows the incidence of adverse reactions through test of cure reported in ≥2% of patients in these trials.

Table 1. Incidence (%) of Adverse Reactions Through Test of Cure Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients Treated in Clinical Studies
Body System
  Adverse Reactions
TYGACIL
(N=2514)
Comparators*
(N=2307)
*
Vancomycin/Aztreonam, Imipenem/Cilastatin, Levofloxacin, Linezolid.
LFT abnormalities in TYGACIL-treated patients were reported more frequently in the post therapy period than those in comparator-treated patients, which occurred more often on therapy.
Body as a Whole
  Abdominal pain 6 4
  Abscess 2 2
  Asthenia 3 2
  Headache 6 7
  Infection 7 5
Cardiovascular System
  Phlebitis 3 4
Digestive System
  Diarrhea 12 11
  Dyspepsia 2 2
  Nausea 26 13
  Vomiting 18 9
Hemic and Lymphatic System
  Anemia 5 6
Metabolic and Nutritional
  Alkaline Phosphatase Increased 3 3
  Amylase Increased 3 2
  Bilirubinemia 2 1
  BUN Increased 3 1
  Healing Abnormal 3 2
  Hyponatremia 2 1
  Hypoproteinemia 5 3
  SGOT Increased 4 5
  SGPT Increased 5 5
Respiratory System
  Pneumonia 2 2
Nervous System
  Dizziness 3 3
Skin and Appendages
  Rash 3 4

In all 13 Phase 3 and 4 trials that included a comparator, death occurred in 4.0% (150/3788) of patients receiving TYGACIL and 3.0% (110/3646) of patients receiving comparator drugs. In a pooled analysis of these trials, based on a random effects model by trial weight, an adjusted risk difference of all-cause mortality was 0.6% (95% CI 0.1, 1.2) between TYGACIL and comparator-treated patients (see Table 2). The cause of the imbalance has not been established. Generally, deaths were the result of worsening infection, complications of infection or underlying co-morbidities.

Table 2. Patients with Outcome of Death by Infection Type
TYGACIL Comparator Risk Difference*
Infection Type n/N % n/N % % (95% CI)
CAP = Community-acquired pneumonia; cIAI = Complicated intra-abdominal infections; cSSSI = Complicated skin and skin structure infections; HAP = Hospital-acquired pneumonia; VAP = Ventilator-associated pneumonia; RP = Resistant pathogens; DFI = Diabetic foot infections.
Note: The studies include 300, 305, 900 (cSSSI), 301, 306, 315, 316, 400 (cIAI), 308 and 313 (CAP), 311 (HAP), 307 [Resistant gram-positive pathogen study in patients with MRSA or Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)], and 319 (DFI with and without osteomyelitis).
*
The difference between the percentage of patients who died in TYGACIL and comparator treatment groups. The 95% CI for each infection type was calculated using the normal approximation method without continuity correction.
These are subgroups of the HAP population.
Overall adjusted (random effects model by trial weight) risk difference estimate and 95% CI.
cSSSI 12/834 1.4 6/813 0.7 0.7 (-0.3, 1.7)
cIAI 42/1382 3.0 31/1393 2.2 0.8 (-0.4, 2.0)
CAP 12/424 2.8 11/422 2.6 0.2 (-2.0, 2.4)
HAP 66/467 14.1 57/467 12.2 1.9 (-2.4, 6.3)
Non-VAP 41/336 12.2 42/345 12.2 0.0 (-4.9, 4.9)
VAP 25/131 19.1 15/122 12.3 6.8 (-2.1, 15.7)
RP 11/128 8.6 2/43 4.7 3.9 (-4.0, 11.9)
DFI 7/553 1.3 3/508 0.6 0.7 (-0.5, 1.8)
Overall Adjusted 150/3788 4.0 110/3646 3.0 0.6 (0.1, 1.2)

An analysis of mortality in all trials conducted for approved indications - cSSSI, cIAI, and CABP, including post-market trials (one in cSSSI and two in cIAI) - showed an adjusted mortality rate of 2.5% (66/2640) for tigecycline and 1.8% (48/2628) for comparator, respectively. The adjusted risk difference for mortality stratified by trial weight was 0.6% (95% CI 0.0, 1.2).

In comparative clinical studies, infection-related serious adverse reactions were more frequently reported for subjects treated with TYGACIL (7%) versus comparators (6%). Serious adverse reactions of sepsis/septic shock were more frequently reported for subjects treated with TYGACIL (2%) versus comparators (1%). Due to baseline differences between treatment groups in this subset of patients, the relationship of this outcome to treatment cannot be established [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].

The most common adverse reactions were nausea and vomiting which generally occurred during the first 1 – 2 days of therapy. The majority of cases of nausea and vomiting associated with TYGACIL and comparators were either mild or moderate in severity. In patients treated with TYGACIL, nausea incidence was 26% (17% mild, 8% moderate, 1% severe) and vomiting incidence was 18% (11% mild, 6% moderate, 1% severe).

In patients treated for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), nausea incidence was 35% for TYGACIL and 9% for vancomycin/aztreonam; vomiting incidence was 20% for TYGACIL and 4% for vancomycin/aztreonam. In patients treated for complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), nausea incidence was 25% for TYGACIL and 21% for imipenem/cilastatin; vomiting incidence was 20% for TYGACIL and 15% for imipenem/cilastatin. In patients treated for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), nausea incidence was 24% for TYGACIL and 8% for levofloxacin; vomiting incidence was 16% for TYGACIL and 6% for levofloxacin.

Discontinuation from TYGACIL was most frequently associated with nausea (1%) and vomiting (1%). For comparators, discontinuation was most frequently associated with nausea (<1%).

The following adverse reactions were reported (<2%) in patients receiving TYGACIL in clinical studies:

Body as a Whole: injection site inflammation, injection site pain, injection site reaction, septic shock, allergic reaction, chills, injection site edema, injection site phlebitis

Cardiovascular System: thrombophlebitis

Digestive System: anorexia, jaundice, abnormal stools

Metabolic/Nutritional System: increased creatinine, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia

Special Senses: taste perversion

Hemic and Lymphatic System: prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prolonged prothrombin time (PT), eosinophilia, increased international normalized ratio (INR), thrombocytopenia

Skin and Appendages: pruritus

Urogenital System: vaginal moniliasis, vaginitis, leukorrhea

6.2 Post-Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of TYGACIL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish causal relationship to drug exposure.

  • anaphylactic reactions
  • acute pancreatitis
  • hepatic cholestasis, and jaundice
  • severe skin reactions, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  • symptomatic hypoglycemia in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Tigecycline for injection is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus grp. (includes S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacteroides fragilis.

1.2 Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections

Tigecycline for injection is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by susceptible isolates of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus anginosus grp. (includes S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens, and Peptostreptococcus micros.

1.3 Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

Tigecycline for injection is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible isolates), including cases with concurrent bacteremia, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila.

1.4 Limitations of Use

TYGACIL is not indicated for the treatment of diabetic foot infections. A clinical trial failed to demonstrate non-inferiority of TYGACIL for treatment of diabetic foot infections.

TYGACIL is not indicated for the treatment of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia. In a comparative clinical trial, greater mortality and decreased efficacy were reported in TYGACIL-treated patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

1.5 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of TYGACIL and other antibacterial drugs, TYGACIL should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Appropriate specimens for bacteriological examination should be obtained in order to isolate and identify the causative organisms and to determine their susceptibility to tigecycline. TYGACIL may be initiated as empiric monotherapy before results of these tests are known.

UNASYN® (ampicillin sodium, sulbactam sodium)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use UNASYN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for UNASYN.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of UNASYN is contraindicated in individuals with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to ampicillin, sulbactam or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).

UNASYN is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with UNASYN.

WARNINGS

Hypersensitivity

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more apt to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or hypersensitivity reactions to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before therapy with a penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, and other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, UNASYN should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted.

Hepatotoxicity

Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of UNASYN. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment.

Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

UNASYN may cause severe skin reactions, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), dermatitis exfoliative, erythema multiforme, and Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). If patients develop a skin rash they should be monitored closely and UNASYN discontinued if lesions progress (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections).

Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including UNASYN, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drug use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


PRECAUTIONS

General

A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive ampicillin develop a skin rash. Thus, ampicillin class antibacterial should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis. In patients treated with UNASYN the possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Pseudomonas or Candida), the drug should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted.

Prescribing UNASYN in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including UNASYN should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When UNASYN is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by UNASYN or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterial which usually ends when the antibacterial is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterial, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibacterial. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Drug Interactions

Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of ampicillin and sulbactam. Concurrent use of probenecid with UNASYN may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of ampicillin and sulbactam. The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. There are no data with UNASYN and allopurinol administered concurrently. UNASYN and aminoglycosides should not be reconstituted together due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by the ampicillin component of UNASYN.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Administration of UNASYN will result in high urine concentration of ampicillin. High urine concentrations of ampicillin may result in false positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using Clinitest™, Benedict's Solution or Fehling's Solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix™ or Testape™) be used. Following administration of ampicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone and estradiol has been noted. This effect may also occur with UNASYN.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential.

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies have been performed in mice, rats, and rabbits at doses up to ten (10) times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to UNASYN. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. (see –PRECAUTIONS-Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions section).

Labor and Delivery

Studies in guinea pigs have shown that intravenous administration of ampicillin decreased the uterine tone, frequency of contractions, height of contractions, and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether the use of UNASYN in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary.

Nursing Mothers

Low concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam are excreted in the milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when UNASYN is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of UNASYN have been established for pediatric patients one year of age and older for skin and skin structure infections as approved in adults. Use of UNASYN in pediatric patients is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional data from pediatric pharmacokinetic studies, a controlled clinical trial conducted in pediatric patients and post-marketing adverse events surveillance. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, INDICATIONS AND USAGE, ADVERSE REACTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and CLINICAL STUDIES sections).

The safety and effectiveness of UNASYN have not been established for pediatric patients for intra-abdominal infections.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adult Patients

UNASYN is generally well tolerated. The following adverse reactions have been reported in clinical trials.

Local Adverse Reactions

Pain at IM injection site – 16%
Pain at IV injection site – 3%
Thrombophlebitis – 3%
Phlebitis – 1.2%

Systemic Adverse Reactions

The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea in 3% of the patients and rash in less than 2% of the patients.

Additional systemic reactions reported in less than 1% of the patients were: itching, nausea, vomiting, candidiasis, fatigue, malaise, headache, chest pain, flatulence, abdominal distension, glossitis, urine retention, dysuria, edema, facial swelling, erythema, chills, tightness in throat, substernal pain, epistaxis and mucosal bleeding.

Pediatric Patients

Available safety data for pediatric patients treated with UNASYN demonstrate a similar adverse events profile to those observed in adult patients. Additionally, atypical lymphocytosis has been observed in one pediatric patient receiving UNASYN.

Adverse Laboratory Changes

Adverse laboratory changes without regard to drug relationship that were reported during clinical trials were:

Hepatic: Increased AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and LDH.
Hematologic: Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets and increased lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets.
Blood Chemistry: Decreased serum albumin and total proteins.
Renal: Increased BUN and creatinine.
Urinalysis: Presence of RBC's and hyaline casts in urine.

Postmarketing Experience

In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during post-marketing use of ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium or other products containing ampicillin. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency, or potential causal connection to ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium.

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Some individuals have developed positive direct Coombs Tests during treatment with UNASYN, as with other beta-lactam antibacterials.

Gastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal pain, cholestatic hepatitis, cholestasis, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice, abnormal hepatic function, melena, gastritis, stomatitis, dyspepsia, black "hairy" tongue, and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS sections).

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Injection site reaction

Immune System Disorders: Serious and fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions (see WARNINGS section).

Nervous System Disorders: Convulsion and dizziness

Renal and Urinary Disorders: Tubulointerstitial nephritis

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: Dyspnea

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, and urticaria (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS sections).

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

UNASYN is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,2 Klebsiella spp.2 (including K. pneumoniae2), Proteus mirabilis,2 Bacteroides fragilis,2 Enterobacter spp.,2 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.2

NOTE: For information on use in pediatric patients (see PRECAUTIONS–Pediatric Use and CLINICAL STUDIES sections).

Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae2), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp.2

Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli,2 and Bacteroides spp.2 (including B. fragilis2).

While UNASYN is indicated only for the conditions listed above, infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms are also amenable to treatment with UNASYN due to its ampicillin content. Therefore, mixed infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms and beta-lactamase producing organisms susceptible to UNASYN should not require the addition of another antibacterial.

Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify the organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to UNASYN.

Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining the results from bacteriological and susceptibility studies when there is reason to believe the infection may involve any of the beta-lactamase producing organisms listed above in the indicated organ systems. Once the results are known, therapy should be adjusted if appropriate.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of UNASYN and other antibacterial drugs, UNASYN should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.


2
Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.

VFEND® (voriconazole)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use VFEND safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for VFEND.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • VFEND is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to voriconazole or its excipients. There is no information regarding cross-sensitivity between VFEND (voriconazole) and other azole antifungal agents. Caution should be used when prescribing VFEND to patients with hypersensitivity to other azoles.
  • Coadministration of terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, pimozide or quinidine with VFEND is contraindicated because increased plasma concentrations of these drugs can lead to QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsade de pointes [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of VFEND with sirolimus is contraindicated because VFEND significantly increases sirolimus concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of VFEND with rifampin, carbamazepine and long-acting barbiturates is contraindicated because these drugs are likely to decrease plasma voriconazole concentrations significantly [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of standard doses of voriconazole with efavirenz doses of 400 mg q24h or higher is contraindicated, because efavirenz significantly decreases plasma voriconazole concentrations in healthy subjects at these doses. Voriconazole also significantly increases efavirenz plasma concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of VFEND with high-dose ritonavir (400 mg q12h) is contraindicated because ritonavir (400 mg q12h) significantly decreases plasma voriconazole concentrations. Coadministration of voriconazole and low-dose ritonavir (100 mg q12h) should be avoided, unless an assessment of the benefit/risk to the patient justifies the use of voriconazole [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of VFEND with rifabutin is contraindicated since VFEND significantly increases rifabutin plasma concentrations and rifabutin also significantly decreases voriconazole plasma concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of VFEND with ergot alkaloids (ergotamine and dihydroergotamine) is contraindicated because VFEND may increase the plasma concentration of ergot alkaloids, which may lead to ergotism [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
  • Coadministration of VFEND with St. John's Wort is contraindicated because this herbal supplement may decrease voriconazole plasma concentration [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Drug Interactions

See Table 7 for a listing of drugs that may significantly alter voriconazole concentrations. Also, see Table 8 for a listing of drugs that may interact with voriconazole resulting in altered pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of the other drug [see Contraindications (4) and Drug Interactions (7)].

5.2 Hepatic Toxicity

In clinical trials, there have been uncommon cases of serious hepatic reactions during treatment with VFEND (including clinical hepatitis, cholestasis and fulminant hepatic failure, including fatalities). Instances of hepatic reactions were noted to occur primarily in patients with serious underlying medical conditions (predominantly hematological malignancy). Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis and jaundice, have occurred among patients with no other identifiable risk factors. Liver dysfunction has usually been reversible on discontinuation of therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) and Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

Measure serum transaminase levels and bilirubin at the initiation of VFEND therapy and monitor at least weekly for the first month of treatment. Monitoring frequency can be reduced to monthly during continued use if no clinically significant changes are noted. If liver function tests become markedly elevated compared to baseline, VFEND should be discontinued unless the medical judgment of the benefit-risk of the treatment for the patient justifies continued use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9), Dosage and Administration (2.4, 2.7), and Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

5.3 Visual Disturbances

The effect of VFEND on visual function is not known if treatment continues beyond 28 days. There have been post-marketing reports of prolonged visual adverse events, including optic neuritis and papilledema. If treatment continues beyond 28 days, visual function including visual acuity, visual field and color perception should be monitored [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.4 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Voriconazole can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.

In animals, voriconazole administration was associated with teratogenicity, embryotoxicity, increased gestational length, dystocia and embryomortality [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, inform the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus.

5.5 Galactose Intolerance

VFEND tablets contain lactose and should not be given to patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption.

5.6 Arrhythmias and QT Prolongation

Some azoles, including voriconazole, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. During clinical development and post-marketing surveillance, there have been rare cases of arrhythmias, (including ventricular arrhythmias such as torsade de pointes), cardiac arrests and sudden deaths in patients taking voriconazole. These cases usually involved seriously ill patients with multiple confounding risk factors, such as history of cardiotoxic chemotherapy, cardiomyopathy, hypokalemia and concomitant medications that may have been contributory.

Voriconazole should be administered with caution to patients with potentially proarrhythmic conditions, such as:

Rigorous attempts to correct potassium, magnesium and calcium should be made before starting and during voriconazole therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.7 Infusion Related Reactions

During infusion of the intravenous formulation of voriconazole in healthy subjects, anaphylactoid-type reactions, including flushing, fever, sweating, tachycardia, chest tightness, dyspnea, faintness, nausea, pruritus and rash, have occurred uncommonly. Symptoms appeared immediately upon initiating the infusion. Consideration should be given to stopping the infusion should these reactions occur.

5.8 Laboratory Tests

Electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia should be corrected prior to initiation of and during VFEND therapy.

Patient management should include laboratory evaluation of renal (particularly serum creatinine) and hepatic function (particularly liver function tests and bilirubin).

5.9 Patients With Hepatic Impairment

It is recommended that the standard loading dose regimens be used but that the maintenance dose be halved in patients with mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh Class A and B) receiving VFEND [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.7)].

VFEND has not been studied in patients with severe cirrhosis (Child-Pugh Class C). VFEND has been associated with elevations in liver function tests and clinical signs of liver damage, such as jaundice, and should only be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment if the benefit outweighs the potential risk. Patients with hepatic impairment must be carefully monitored for drug toxicity.

5.10 Patients With Renal Impairment

In patients with moderate to severe renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min), accumulation of the intravenous vehicle, SBECD, occurs. Oral voriconazole should be administered to these patients, unless an assessment of the benefit/risk to the patient justifies the use of intravenous voriconazole. Serum creatinine levels should be closely monitored in these patients, and if increases occur, consideration should be given to changing to oral voriconazole therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.8)].

5.11 Monitoring of Renal Function

Acute renal failure has been observed in patients undergoing treatment with VFEND. Patients being treated with voriconazole are likely to be treated concomitantly with nephrotoxic medications and have concurrent conditions that may result in decreased renal function.

Patients should be monitored for the development of abnormal renal function. This should include laboratory evaluation, particularly serum creatinine.

5.12 Monitoring of Pancreatic Function

Patients with risk factors for acute pancreatitis (e.g., recent chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT]) should be monitored for the development of pancreatitis during VFEND treatment.

5.13 Dermatological Reactions

Serious exfoliative cutaneous reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported during treatment with VFEND. If a patient develops an exfoliative cutaneous reaction, VFEND should be discontinued.

VFEND has been associated with photosensitivity skin reaction. Patients, including children, should avoid exposure to direct sunlight during VFEND treatment and should use measures such as protective clothing and sunscreen with high sun protection factor (SPF). If phototoxic reactions occur, the patient should be referred to a dermatologist and VFEND discontinuation should be considered. If VFEND is continued despite the occurrence of phototoxicity-related lesions, dermatologic evaluation should be performed on a systematic and regular basis to allow early detection and management of premalignant lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and melanoma have been reported during long-term VFEND therapy in patients with photosensitivity skin reactions. If a patient develops a skin lesion consistent with premalignant skin lesions, squamous cell carcinoma or melanoma, VFEND should be discontinued.

The frequency of phototoxicity reactions is higher in the pediatric population. Because squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in patients who experience photosensitivity reactions, stringent measures for photoprotection are warranted in children. In children experiencing photoaging injuries such as lentigines or ephelides, sun avoidance and dermatologic follow-up are recommended even after treatment discontinuation.

5.14 Skeletal Adverse Events

Fluorosis and periostitis have been reported during long-term voriconazole therapy. If a patient develops skeletal pain and radiologic findings compatible with fluorosis or periostitis, voriconazole should be discontinued [see Adverse Reactions (6.4)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

6.1 Overview

The most frequently reported adverse events (all causalities) in the therapeutic trials were visual disturbances (18.7%), fever (5.7%), nausea (5.4%), rash (5.3%), vomiting (4.4%), chills (3.7%), headache (3.0%), liver function test increased (2.7%), tachycardia (2.4%), hallucinations (2.4%). The treatment-related adverse events which most often led to discontinuation of voriconazole therapy were elevated liver function tests, rash, and visual disturbances [see Warning and Precautions (5.2, 5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.2, 6.3)].

6.2 Clinical Trial Experience in Adults

The data described in Table 3 reflect exposure to voriconazole in 1655 patients in the therapeutic studies. This represents a heterogeneous population, including immunocompromised patients, e.g., patients with hematological malignancy or HIV and non-neutropenic patients. This subgroup does not include healthy subjects and patients treated in the compassionate use and non-therapeutic studies. This patient population was 62% male, had a mean age of 46 years (range 11–90, including 51 patients aged 12–18 years), and was 78% White and 10% Black. Five hundred sixty one patients had a duration of voriconazole therapy of greater than 12 weeks, with 136 patients receiving voriconazole for over six months. Table 3 includes all adverse events which were reported at an incidence of ≥2% during voriconazole therapy in the all therapeutic studies population, studies 307/602 and 608 combined, or study 305, as well as events of concern which occurred at an incidence of <2%.

In study 307/602, 381 patients (196 on voriconazole, 185 on amphotericin B) were treated to compare voriconazole to amphotericin B followed by other licensed antifungal therapy in the primary treatment of patients with acute invasive aspergillosis. The rate of discontinuation from voriconazole study medication due to adverse events was 21.4% (42/196 patients). In study 608, 403 patients with candidemia were treated to compare voriconazole (272 patients) to the regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole (131 patients). The rate of discontinuation from voriconazole study medication due to adverse events was 19.5% out of 272 patients. Study 305 evaluated the effects of oral voriconazole (200 patients) and oral fluconazole (191 patients) in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. The rate of discontinuation from voriconazole study medication in Study 305 due to adverse events was 7% (14/200 patients). Laboratory test abnormalities for these studies are discussed under Clinical Laboratory Values below.

Table 3: Treatment Emergent Adverse Events Rate ≥ 2% on Voriconazole or Adverse Events of Concern in All Therapeutic Studies Population, Studies 307/602–608 Combined, or Study 305. Possibly Related to Therapy or Causality Unknown*
All Therapeutic Studies Studies 307/602 and 608
(IV/ oral therapy)
Study 305
(oral therapy)
Voriconazole
N=1655
Voriconazole
N=468
Ampho B
N=185
Ampho B→ Fluconazole
N=131
Voriconazole
N=200
Fluconazole
N=191
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
*
Study 307/602: invasive aspergillosis; Study 608: candidemia; Study 305: esophageal candidiasis
Amphotericin B followed by other licensed antifungal therapy
See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)
 
Special Senses
Abnormal vision 310 (18.7) 63 (13.5) 1 (0.5) 0 31 (15.5) 8 (4.2)
Photophobia 37 (2.2) 8 (1.7) 0 0 5 (2.5) 2 (1.0)
Chromatopsia 20 (1.2) 2 (0.4) 0 0 2 (1.0) 0
 
Body as a Whole
Fever 94 (5.7) 8 (1.7) 25 (13.5) 5 (3.8) 0 0
Chills 61 (3.7) 1 (0.2) 36 (19.5) 8 (6.1) 1 (0.5) 0
Headache 49 (3.0) 9 (1.9) 8 (4.3) 1 (0.8) 0 1 (0.5)
 
Cardiovascular System
Tachycardia 39 (2.4) 6 (1.3) 5 (2.7) 0 0 0
 
Digestive System
Nausea 89 (5.4) 18 (3.8) 29 (15.7) 2 (1.5) 2 (1.0) 3 (1.6)
Vomiting 72 (4.4) 15 (3.2) 18 (9.7) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.0) 1 (0.5)
Liver function tests abnormal 45 (2.7) 15 (3.2) 4 (2.2) 1 (0.8) 6 (3.0) 2 (1.0)
Cholestatic jaundice 17 (1.0) 8 (1.7) 0 1 (0.8) 3 (1.5) 0
 
Metabolic and Nutritional Systems
Alkaline phosphatase increased 59 (3.6) 19 (4.1) 4 (2.2) 3 (2.3) 10 (5.0) 3 (1.6)
Hepatic enzymes increased 30 (1.8) 11 (2.4) 5 (2.7) 1 (0.8) 3 (1.5) 0
SGOT increased 31 (1.9) 9 (1.9) 0 1 (0.8) 8 (4.0) 2 (1.0)
SGPT increased 29 (1.8) 9 (1.9) 1 (0.5) 2 (1.5) 6 (3.0) 2 (1.0)
Hypokalemia 26 (1.6) 3 (0.6) 36 (19.5) 16 (12.2) 0 0
Bilirubinemia 15 (0.9) 5 (1.1) 3 (1.6) 2 (1.5) 1 (0.5) 0
Creatinine increased 4 (0.2) 0 59 (31.9) 10 (7.6) 1 (0.5) 0
 
Nervous System
Hallucinations 39 (2.4) 13 (2.8) 1 (0.5) 0 0 0
 
Skin and Appendages
Rash 88 (5.3) 20 (4.3) 7 (3.8) 1 (0.8) 3 (1.5) 1 (0.5)
 
Urogenital
Kidney function abnormal 10 (0.6) 6 (1.3) 40 (21.6) 9 (6.9) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5)
Acute kidney failure 7 (0.4) 2 (0.4) 11 (5.9) 7 (5.3) 0 0

Visual Disturbances

Voriconazole treatment-related visual disturbances are common. In therapeutic trials, approximately 21% of patients experienced abnormal vision, color vision change and/or photophobia. Visual disturbances may be associated with higher plasma concentrations and/or doses.

There have been post-marketing reports of prolonged visual adverse events, including optic neuritis and papilledema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

The mechanism of action of the visual disturbance is unknown, although the site of action is most likely to be within the retina. In a study in healthy subjects investigating the effect of 28-day treatment with voriconazole on retinal function, voriconazole caused a decrease in the electroretinogram (ERG) waveform amplitude, a decrease in the visual field, and an alteration in color perception. The ERG measures electrical currents in the retina. The effects were noted early in administration of voriconazole and continued through the course of study drug dosing. Fourteen days after end of dosing, ERG, visual fields and color perception returned to normal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Dermatological Reactions

Dermatological reactions were common in the patients treated with voriconazole. The mechanism underlying these dermatologic adverse events remains unknown.

Serious cutaneous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme have been reported during treatment with VFEND. If a patient develops an exfoliative cutaneous reaction, VFEND should be discontinued.

In addition, VFEND has been associated with photosensitivity skin reactions. Patients should avoid strong, direct sunlight during VFEND therapy. In patients with photosensitivity skin reactions, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and melanoma have been reported during long-term therapy. If a patient develops a skin lesion consistent with squamous cell carcinoma or melanoma, VFEND should be discontinued [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].

Less Common Adverse Events

The following adverse events occurred in <2% of all voriconazole-treated patients in all therapeutic studies (N=1655). This listing includes events where a causal relationship to voriconazole cannot be ruled out or those which may help the physician in managing the risks to the patients. The list does not include events included in Table 3 above and does not include every event reported in the voriconazole clinical program.

Body as a Whole: abdominal pain, abdomen enlarged, allergic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)], ascites, asthenia, back pain, chest pain, cellulitis, edema, face edema, flank pain, flu syndrome, graft versus host reaction, granuloma, infection, bacterial infection, fungal infection, injection site pain, injection site infection/inflammation, mucous membrane disorder, multi-organ failure, pain, pelvic pain, peritonitis, sepsis, substernal chest pain.

Cardiovascular: atrial arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, AV block complete, bigeminy, bradycardia, bundle branch block, cardiomegaly, cardiomyopathy, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, deep thrombophlebitis, endocarditis, extrasystoles, heart arrest, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial infarction, nodal arrhythmia, palpitation, phlebitis, postural hypotension, pulmonary embolus, QT interval prolonged, supraventricular extrasystoles, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, thrombophlebitis, vasodilatation, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia (including torsade de pointes) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Digestive: anorexia, cheilitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, constipation, diarrhea, duodenal ulcer perforation, duodenitis, dyspepsia, dysphagia, dry mouth, esophageal ulcer, esophagitis, flatulence, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, GGT/LDH elevated, gingivitis, glossitis, gum hemorrhage, gum hyperplasia, hematemesis, hepatic coma, hepatic failure, hepatitis, intestinal perforation, intestinal ulcer, jaundice, enlarged liver, melena, mouth ulceration, pancreatitis, parotid gland enlargement, periodontitis, proctitis, pseudomembranous colitis, rectal disorder, rectal hemorrhage, stomach ulcer, stomatitis, tongue edema.

Endocrine: adrenal cortex insufficiency, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism.

Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, anemia (macrocytic, megaloblastic, microcytic, normocytic), aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, bleeding time increased, cyanosis, DIC, ecchymosis, eosinophilia, hypervolemia, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, lymphangitis, marrow depression, pancytopenia, petechia, purpura, enlarged spleen, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Metabolic and Nutritional: albuminuria, BUN increased, creatine phosphokinase increased, edema, glucose tolerance decreased, hypercalcemia, hypercholesteremia, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, peripheral edema, uremia.

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis, bone necrosis, bone pain, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, myopathy, osteomalacia, osteoporosis.

Nervous System: abnormal dreams, acute brain syndrome, agitation, akathisia, amnesia, anxiety, ataxia, brain edema, coma, confusion, convulsion, delirium, dementia, depersonalization, depression, diplopia, dizziness, encephalitis, encephalopathy, euphoria, Extrapyramidal Syndrome, grand mal convulsion, Guillain-Barré syndrome, hypertonia, hypesthesia, insomnia, intracranial hypertension, libido decreased, neuralgia, neuropathy, nystagmus, oculogyric crisis, paresthesia, psychosis, somnolence, suicidal ideation, tremor, vertigo.

Respiratory System: cough increased, dyspnea, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hypoxia, lung edema, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, respiratory disorder, respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory tract infection, rhinitis, sinusitis, voice alteration.

Skin and Appendages: alopecia, angioedema, contact dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosis, eczema, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, furunculosis, herpes simplex, maculopapular rash, melanoma, melanosis, photosensitivity skin reaction, pruritus, pseudoporphyria, psoriasis, skin discoloration, skin disorder, skin dry, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, squamous cell carcinoma, sweating, toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria.

Special Senses: abnormality of accommodation, blepharitis, color blindness, conjunctivitis, corneal opacity, deafness, ear pain, eye pain, eye hemorrhage, dry eyes, hypoacusis, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis, mydriasis, night blindness, optic atrophy, optic neuritis, otitis externa, papilledema, retinal hemorrhage, retinitis, scleritis, taste loss, taste perversion, tinnitus, uveitis, visual field defect.

Urogenital: anuria, blighted ovum, creatinine clearance decreased, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, epididymitis, glycosuria, hemorrhagic cystitis, hematuria, hydronephrosis, impotence, kidney pain, kidney tubular necrosis, metrorrhagia, nephritis, nephrosis, oliguria, scrotal edema, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage.

6.3 Clinical Laboratory Values

The overall incidence of clinically significant transaminase abnormalities in all therapeutic studies was 12.4% (206/1655) of patients treated with voriconazole. Increased incidence of liver function test abnormalities may be associated with higher plasma concentrations and/or doses. The majority of abnormal liver function tests either resolved during treatment without dose adjustment or following dose adjustment, including discontinuation of therapy.

Voriconazole has been infrequently associated with cases of serious hepatic toxicity including cases of jaundice and rare cases of hepatitis and hepatic failure leading to death. Most of these patients had other serious underlying conditions.

Liver function tests should be evaluated at the start of and during the course of VFEND therapy. Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during VFEND therapy should be monitored for the development of more severe hepatic injury. Patient management should include laboratory evaluation of hepatic function (particularly liver function tests and bilirubin). Discontinuation of VFEND must be considered if clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop that may be attributable to VFEND [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Acute renal failure has been observed in severely ill patients undergoing treatment with VFEND. Patients being treated with voriconazole are likely to be treated concomitantly with nephrotoxic medications and have concurrent conditions that may result in decreased renal function. It is recommended that patients are monitored for the development of abnormal renal function. This should include laboratory evaluation, particularly serum creatinine.

Tables 4 to 6 show the number of patients with hypokalemia and clinically significant changes in renal and liver function tests in three randomized, comparative multicenter studies. In study 305, patients with esophageal candidiasis were randomized to either oral voriconazole or oral fluconazole. In study 307/602, patients with definite or probable invasive aspergillosis were randomized to either voriconazole or amphotericin B therapy. In study 608, patients with candidemia were randomized to either voriconazole or the regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole.

Table 4: Protocol 305 – Patients with Esophageal Candidiasis Clinically Significant Laboratory Test Abnormalities
Criteria* Voriconazole Fluconazole
n/N (%) n /N (%)
n = number of patients with a clinically significant abnormality while on study therapy
N = total number of patients with at least one observation of the given lab test while on study therapy
ULN = upper limit of normal
*
Without regard to baseline value
 
T. Bilirubin >1.5× ULN 8/185 (4.3) 7/186 (3.8)
AST >3.0× ULN 38/187 (20.3) 15/186 (8.1)
ALT >3.0× ULN 20/187 (10.7) 12/186 (6.5)
Alk phos >3.0× ULN 19/187 (10.2) 14/186 (7.5)
Table 5: Protocol 307/602 – Primary Treatment of Invasive Aspergillosis Clinically Significant Laboratory Test Abnormalities
Criteria* Voriconazole Amphotericin B
n/N (%) n/N (%)
n = number of patients with a clinically significant abnormality while on study therapy
N = total number of patients with at least one observation of the given lab test while on study therapy
ULN = upper limit of normal
LLN = lower limit of normal
*
Without regard to baseline value
Amphotericin B followed by other licensed antifungal therapy
 
T. Bilirubin >1.5× ULN 35/180 (19.4) 46/173 (26.6)
AST >3.0× ULN 21/180 (11.7) 18/174 (10.3)
ALT >3.0× ULN 34/180 (18.9) 40/173 (23.1)
Alk phos >3.0× ULN 29/181 (16.0) 38/173 (22.0)
Creatinine >1.3× ULN 39/182 (21.4) 102/177 (57.6)
Potassium <0.9× LLN 30/181 (16.6) 70/178 (39.3)
Table 6: Protocol 608 – Treatment of Candidemia Clinically Significant Laboratory Test Abnormalities
Criteria* Voriconazole Amphotericin B followed by Fluconazole
n/N (%) n/N (%)
n = number of patients with a clinically significant abnormality while on study therapy
N = total number of patients with at least one observation of the given lab test while on study therapy
ULN = upper limit of normal
LLN = lower limit of normal
*
Without regard to baseline value
 
T. Bilirubin >1.5× ULN 50/261 (19.2) 31/115 (27.0)
AST >3.0× ULN 40/261 (15.3) 16/116 (13.8)
ALT >3.0× ULN 22/261 (8.4) 15/116 (12.9)
Alk phos >3.0× ULN 59/261 (22.6) 26/115 (22.6)
Creatinine >1.3× ULN 39/260 (15.0) 32/118 (27.1)
Potassium <0.9× LLN 43/258 (16.7) 35/118 (29.7)

6.4 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of voriconazole. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Skeletal: fluorosis and periostitis have been reported during long-term voriconazole therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

VFEND is indicated for use in patients 12 years of age and older in the treatment of the following fungal infections:

1.1 Invasive Aspergillosis

In clinical trials, the majority of isolates recovered were Aspergillus fumigatus. There was a small number of cases of culture-proven disease due to species of Aspergillus other than A. fumigatus [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].

1.2 Candidemia in Non-neutropenic Patients and the Following Candida Infections: Disseminated Infections in Skin and Infections in Abdomen, Kidney, Bladder Wall, and Wounds

[see Clinical Studies (14.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]

1.3 Esophageal Candidiasis

[see Clinical Studies (14.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]

1.4 Serious Fungal Infections Caused by Scedosporium apiospermum (Asexual Form of Pseudallescheria boydii) and Fusarium spp. Including Fusarium solani, in Patients Intolerant of, or Refractory to, Other Therapy

[see Clinical Studies (14.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]

Specimens for fungal culture and other relevant laboratory studies (including histopathology) should be obtained prior to therapy to isolate and identify causative organism(s). Therapy may be instituted before the results of the cultures and other laboratory studies are known. However, once these results become available, antifungal therapy should be adjusted accordingly.

VIBRAMYCIN® (doxycycline calcium or doxycycline hyclate or doxycycline monohydrate)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use VIBRAMYCIN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for VIBRAMYCIN.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

WARNINGS

The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown).This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Use doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks in severe or life-threatening conditions (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), particularly when there are no alternative therapies.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Vibramycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following the use of antibacterial drugs. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing use of antibacterial drugs not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Severe skin reactions, such as exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in patients receiving doxycycline. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.) If severe skin reactions occur, doxycycline should be discontinued immediately and appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including Vibramycin. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and Vibramycin should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

Vibramycin Syrup contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions, including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people.


PRECAUTIONS

General

As with other antibacterial drugs, use of Vibramycin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, Vibramycin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibacterial therapy, when indicated.

Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium strains.

Doxycycline does not suppress P. falciparum's sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas.

Prescribing Vibramycin in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Information For Patients

Patients taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis should be advised:

that no present-day antimalarial agent, including doxycycline, guarantees protection against malaria.
to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by using personal protective measures that help avoid contact with mosquitoes, especially from dusk to dawn (e.g., staying in well-screened areas, using mosquito nets, covering the body with clothing, and using an effective insect repellent).
that doxycycline prophylaxis:
should begin 1–2 days before travel to the malarious area,
should be continued daily while in the malarious area and after leaving the malarious area,
should be continued for 4 further weeks to avoid development of malaria after returning from an endemic area,
should not exceed 4 months.

All patients taking doxycycline should be advised:

to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while receiving doxycycline and to discontinue therapy if phototoxicity (e.g., skin eruption, etc.) occurs. Sunscreen or sunblock should be considered. (See WARNINGS.)
to drink fluids liberally along with doxycycline to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
that the absorption of tetracyclines is reduced when taken with foods, especially those which contain calcium. However, the absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion of food or milk. (See DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
that the absorption of tetracyclines is reduced when taking bismuth subsalicylate. (See DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
that the use of doxycycline might increase the incidence of vaginal candidiasis.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including Vibramycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Vibramycin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Vibramycin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterial drugs, which usually ends when the antibacterials are discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterial drugs, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibacterial drug. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

In venereal disease, when co-existent syphilis is suspected, dark field examinations should be done before treatment is started and the blood serology repeated monthly for at least 4 months.

In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic studies, should be performed.

Drug Interactions

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by bismuth subsalicylate.

Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.

The concurrent use of tetracycline and Penthrane® (methoxyflurane) has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.

Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of doxycycline have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibacterial drugs, oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors), and minocycline (thyroid tumors).

Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of doxycycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays have been reported for related antibacterial drugs (tetracycline, oxytetracycline).

Doxycycline administered orally at dosage levels as high as 250 mg/kg/day had no apparent effect on the fertility of female rats. Effect on male fertility has not been studied.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of doxycycline in pregnant women. The vast majority of reported experience with doxycycline during human pregnancy is short-term, first trimester exposure. There are no human data available to assess the effects of long-term therapy of doxycycline in pregnant women, such as that proposed for treatment of anthrax exposure. An expert review of published data on experiences with doxycycline use during pregnancy by TERIS – the Teratogen Information System – concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (the quantity and quality of data were assessed as limited to fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no risk.8 A case-control study (18,515 mothers of infants with congenital anomalies and 32,804 mothers of infants with no congenital anomalies) shows a weak but marginally statistically significant association with total malformations and use of doxycycline anytime during pregnancy. Sixty-three (0.19%) of the controls and fifty-six (0.30%) of the cases were treated with doxycycline. This association was not seen when the analysis was confined to maternal treatment during the period of organogenesis (i.e., in the second and third months of gestation) with the exception of a marginal relationship with neural tube defect based on only two exposed cases.9

A small prospective study of 81 pregnancies describes 43 pregnant women treated for 10 days with doxycycline during early first trimester. All mothers reported their exposed infants were normal at 1 year of age.10

Nonteratogenic Effects

(See WARNINGS.)

Labor and Delivery

The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk; however, the extent of absorption of tetracyclines, including doxycycline, by the breastfed infant is not known. Short-term use by lactating women is not necessarily contraindicated; however, the effects of prolonged exposure to doxycycline in breast milk are unknown.11 Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. (See WARNINGS.)

Pediatric Use

Because of the effects of drugs of the tetracycline-class on tooth development and growth, use doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks in severe or life-threatening conditions (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), particularly when there are no alternative therapies. (See WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Due to oral doxycycline's virtually complete absorption, side effects of the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported rarely. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Superficial discoloration of the adult permanent dentition, reversible upon drug discontinuation and professional dental cleaning has been reported. Permanent tooth discoloration and enamel hypoplasia may occur with drugs of the tetracycline class when used during tooth development. (See WARNINGS.) Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of the drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS.)

Renal toxicity: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related. (See WARNINGS.)

Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.

Other: Bulging fontanels in infants and intracranial hypertension in adults. (See WARNINGS.)

When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Vibramycin and other antibacterial drugs, Vibramycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Treatment

Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of the following infections:

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
  • Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydophila psittaci.
  • Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.
  • Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.
  • Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.

Doxycycline is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms:

  • Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
  • Plague due to Yersinia pestis.
  • Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis.
  • Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.
  • Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.
  • Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
  • Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.
  • Granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative bacteria, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

  • Escherichia coli.
  • Enterobacter aerogenes.
  • Shigella species.
  • Acinetobacter species.
  • Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
  • Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

  • Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:

  • Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.
  • Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.
  • Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.
  • Vincent's infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.
  • Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.
  • Infections caused by Clostridium species.

In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.

In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

Prophylaxis

Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (<4 months) to areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section and Information for Patients subsection of the PRECAUTIONS section.)

VIROPTIC® (trifluridine)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use VIROPTIC safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for VIROPTIC.

ZITHROMAX® (azithromycin dihydrate)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZITHROMAX safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZITHROMAX.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drug.

4.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity

Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in patients on azithromycin therapy. [see Contraindications (4.1)]

Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is presently unknown.

If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that allergic symptoms may reappear when symptomatic therapy has been discontinued.

5.2 Hepatotoxicity

Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)

Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

5.4 QT Prolongation

Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:

  • patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
  • patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
  • patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

5.5 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ZITHROMAX, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.6 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azithromycin therapy.

5.7 Use in Sexually Transmitted Infections

ZITHROMAX, at the recommended dose, should not be relied upon to treat syphilis. Antibacterial agents used to treat non-gonococcal urethritis may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. All patients with sexually transmitted urethritis or cervicitis should have a serologic test for syphilis and appropriate testing for gonorrhea performed at the time of diagnosis. Appropriate antibacterial therapy and follow-up tests for these diseases should be initiated if infection is confirmed.

5.8 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing ZITHROMAX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical trials, most of the reported side effects were mild to moderate in severity and were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. Potentially serious adverse reactions of angioedema and cholestatic jaundice were reported. Approximately 0.7% of the patients (adults and pediatric patients) from the 5-day multiple-dose clinical trials discontinued ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) therapy because of treatment-related adverse reactions. In adults given 500 mg/day for 3 days, the discontinuation rate due to treatment-related adverse reactions was 0.6%. In clinical trials in pediatric patients given 30 mg/kg, either as a single dose or over 3 days, discontinuation from the trials due to treatment-related adverse reactions was approximately 1%. Most of the adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were related to the gastrointestinal tract, e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]

Adults

Multiple-dose regimens: Overall, the most common treatment-related adverse reactions in adult patients receiving multiple-dose regimens of ZITHROMAX were related to the gastrointestinal system with diarrhea/loose stools (4 to 5%), nausea (3%), and abdominal pain (2 to 3%) being the most frequently reported.

No other adverse reactions occurred in patients on the multiple-dose regimens of ZITHROMAX with a frequency greater than 1%. Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of 1% or less included the following:

Cardiovascular: Palpitations, chest pain.

Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting, melena, and cholestatic jaundice.

Genitourinary: Monilia, vaginitis, and nephritis.

Nervous System: Dizziness, headache, vertigo, and somnolence.

General: Fatigue.

Allergic: Rash, pruritus, photosensitivity, and angioedema.

Single 1-gram dose regimen:

Overall, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving a single-dose regimen of 1 gram of ZITHROMAX were related to the gastrointestinal system and were more frequently reported than in patients receiving the multiple-dose regimen.

Adverse reactions that occurred in patients on the single 1-gram dosing regimen of ZITHROMAX with a frequency of 1% or greater included diarrhea/loose stools (7%), nausea (5%), abdominal pain (5%), vomiting (2%), dyspepsia (1%), and vaginitis (1%).

Single 2-gram dose regimen:

Overall, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving a single 2-gram dose of ZITHROMAX were related to the gastrointestinal system. Adverse reactions that occurred in patients in this study with a frequency of 1% or greater included nausea (18%), diarrhea/loose stools (14%), vomiting (7%), abdominal pain (7%), vaginitis (2%), dyspepsia (1%), and dizziness (1%). The majority of these complaints were mild in nature.

Pediatric Patients

Single and Multiple-dose regimens: The types of adverse reactions in pediatric patients were comparable to those seen in adults, with different incidence rates for the dosage regimens recommended in pediatric patients.

Acute Otitis Media: For the recommended total dosage regimen of 30 mg/kg, the most frequent adverse reactions (≥1%) attributed to treatment were diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and rash. [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Studies (14.2)]

The incidence, based on dosing regimen, is described in the table below:

Dosage Regimen Diarrhea % Abdominal Pain % Vomiting % Nausea % Rash %
1-day 4.3% 1.4% 4.9% 1.0% 1.0%
3-day 2.6% 1.7% 2.3% 0.4% 0.6%
5-day 1.8% 1.2% 1.1% 0.5% 0.4%

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: For the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg on Day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg on Days 2–5, the most frequent adverse reactions attributed to treatment were diarrhea/loose stools, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and rash.

The incidence is described in the table below:

Dosage Regimen Diarrhea/Loose stools % Abdominal Pain % Vomiting % Nausea % Rash %
5-day 5.8% 1.9% 1.9% 1.9% 1.6%

Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis: For the recommended dosage regimen of 12 mg/kg on Days 1–5, the most frequent adverse reactions attributed to treatment were diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, and headache.

The incidence is described in the table below:

Dosage Regimen Diarrhea % Abdominal Pain % Vomiting % Nausea % Rash % Headache %
5-day 5.4% 3.4% 5.6% 1.8% 0.7% 1.1%

With any of the treatment regimens, no other adverse reactions occurred in pediatric patients treated with ZITHROMAX with a frequency greater than 1%. Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of 1% or less included the following:

Cardiovascular: Chest pain.

Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia, constipation, anorexia, enteritis, flatulence, gastritis, jaundice, loose stools, and oral moniliasis.

Hematologic and Lymphatic: Anemia and leukopenia.

Nervous System: Headache (otitis media dosage), hyperkinesia, dizziness, agitation, nervousness, and insomnia.

General: Fever, face edema, fatigue, fungal infection, malaise, and pain.

Allergic: Rash and allergic reaction.

Respiratory: Cough, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, and rhinitis.

Skin and Appendages: Eczema, fungal dermatitis, pruritus, sweating, urticaria, and vesiculobullous rash.

Special Senses: Conjunctivitis.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of azithromycin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions reported with azithromycin during the postmarketing period in adult and/or pediatric patients for which a causal relationship may not be established include:

Allergic: Arthralgia, edema, urticaria, and angioedema.

Cardiovascular: Arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia and hypotension. There have been reports of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting/diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, oral candidiasis, pyloric stenosis, and reports of tongue discoloration.

General: Asthenia, paresthesia, fatigue, malaise, and anaphylaxis

Genitourinary: Interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure and vaginitis.

Hematopoietic: Thrombocytopenia.

Liver/Biliary: Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Nervous System: Convulsions, dizziness/vertigo, headache, somnolence, hyperactivity, nervousness, agitation, and syncope.

Psychiatric: Aggressive reaction and anxiety.

Skin/Appendages: Pruritus serious skin reactions including erythema multiforme, AGEP, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and DRESS.

Special Senses: Hearing disturbances including hearing loss, deafness and/or tinnitus, and reports of taste/smell perversion and/or loss.

6.3 Laboratory Abnormalities

Adults:

Clinically significant abnormalities (irrespective of drug relationship) occurring during the clinical trials were reported as follows: with an incidence of greater than 1%: decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and blood glucose; elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, potassium, ALT, GGT, AST, BUN, creatinine, blood glucose, platelet count, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils; with an incidence of less than 1%: leukopenia, neutropenia, decreased sodium, potassium, platelet count, elevated monocytes, basophils, bicarbonate, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, LDH, and phosphate. The majority of subjects with elevated serum creatinine also had abnormal values at baseline. When follow-up was provided, changes in laboratory tests appeared to be reversible.

In multiple-dose clinical trials involving more than 5000 patients, four patients discontinued therapy because of treatment-related liver enzyme abnormalities and one because of a renal function abnormality.

Pediatric Patients:

One, Three, and Five Day Regimens

Laboratory data collected from comparative clinical trials employing two 3-day regimens (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg in divided doses over 3 days), or two 5-day regimens (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg in divided doses over 5 days) were similar for regimens of azithromycin and all comparators combined, with most clinically significant laboratory abnormalities occurring at incidences of 1–5%. Laboratory data for patients receiving 30 mg/kg as a single dose were collected in one single center trial. In that trial, an absolute neutrophil count between 500–1500 cells/mm3 was observed in 10/64 patients receiving 30 mg/kg as a single dose, 9/62 patients receiving 30 mg/kg given over 3 days, and 8/63 comparator patients. No patient had an absolute neutrophil count <500 cells/mm3.

In multiple-dose clinical trials involving approximately 4700 pediatric patients, no patients discontinued therapy because of treatment-related laboratory abnormalities.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) is a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below. Recommended dosages and durations of therapy in adult and pediatric patient populations vary in these indications. [see Dosage and Administration (2)]

1.1 Adult Patients

  • Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Acute bacterial sinusitis due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis. or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Community-acquired pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients appropriate for oral therapy.
  • Pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.
  • Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae.
  • Urethritis and cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Genital ulcer disease in men due to Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid). Due to the small number of women included in clinical trials, the efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of chancroid in women has not been established.

1.2 Pediatric Patients

[see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.2)]

  • Acute otitis media (>6 months of age) caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (>6 months of age) due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients appropriate for oral therapy.
  • Pharyngitis/tonsillitis ( > 2 years of age ) caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.

1.3 Limitations of Use

Azithromycin should not be used in patients with pneumonia who are judged to be inappropriate for oral therapy because of moderate to severe illness or risk factors such as any of the following:

  • patients with cystic fibrosis,
  • patients with nosocomial infections,
  • patients with known or suspected bacteremia,
  • patients requiring hospitalization,
  • elderly or debilitated patients, or
  • patients with significant underlying health problems that may compromise their ability to respond to their illness (including immunodeficiency or functional asplenia).

1.4 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) and other antibacterial drugs, ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

ZITHROMAX® 600 MG tablets (azithromycin dihydrate)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZITHROMAX 600 mg tablets safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZITHROMAX 600 mg tablets.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide, or ketolide drug.

4.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity

Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported rarely in patients on azithromycin therapy. [see Contraindications (4.1)]

Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is presently unknown.

If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that allergic symptoms may reappear when symptomatic therapy is discontinued.

5.2 Hepatotoxicity

Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)

Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

5.4 QT Prolongation

Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:

  • patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
  • patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
  • patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

5.5 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

CDAD has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ZITHROMAX, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.6 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Exacerbations of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azithromycin therapy.

5.7 Use in Sexually Transmitted Infections

ZITHROMAX, (single dose 1 g packet) at the recommended dose, should not be relied upon to treat gonorrhea or syphilis. Antibacterial agents used in high doses for short periods of time to treat non-gonococcal urethritis may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating gonorrhea or syphilis. All patients with sexually transmitted urethritis or cervicitis should have a serologic test for syphilis and appropriate cultures for gonorrhea performed at the time of diagnosis. Appropriate antibacterial therapy and follow-up tests for these diseases should be initiated if infection is confirmed.

5.8 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing ZITHROMAX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical trials, most of the reported adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity and were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. Approximately 0.7% of the patients from the multiple-dose clinical trials discontinued ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) therapy because of treatment-related adverse reactions. Serious adverse reactions included angioedema and cholestatic jaundice. Most of the adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were related to the gastrointestinal tract, e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]

Multiple-dose regimen

Overall, the most common adverse reactions in adult patients receiving a multiple-dose regimen of ZITHROMAX were related to the gastrointestinal system with diarrhea/loose stools (5%), nausea (3%), and abdominal pain (3%) being the most frequently reported.

No other adverse reactions occurred in patients on the multiple-dose regimen of ZITHROMAX with a frequency greater than 1%. Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of 1% or less included the following:

Cardiovascular: Palpitations and chest pain.

Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting, melena, and cholestatic jaundice.

Genitourinary: Monilia, vaginitis, and nephritis.

Nervous System: Dizziness, headache, vertigo, and somnolence.

General: Fatigue.

Allergic: Rash, photosensitivity, and angioedema.

Chronic therapy with 1200 mg weekly regimen

The nature of adverse reactions seen with the 1200 mg weekly dosing regimen for the prevention of Mycobacterium avium infection in severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients were similar to those seen with short-term dosing regimens. [see Clinical Studies (14)]

Chronic therapy with 600 mg daily regimen combined with ethambutol

The nature of adverse reactions seen with the 600 mg daily dosing regimen for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients were similar to those seen with short term dosing regimens. Five percent of patients experienced reversible hearing impairment in the pivotal clinical trial for the treatment of disseminated MAC in patients with AIDS. Hearing impairment has been reported with macrolide antibiotics, especially at higher doses. Other treatment-related adverse reactions occurring in >5% of subjects and seen at any time during a median of 87.5 days of therapy include: abdominal pain (14%), nausea (14%), vomiting (13%), diarrhea (12%), flatulence (5%), headache (5%), and abnormal vision (5%). Discontinuations from treatment due to laboratory abnormalities or adverse reactions considered related to study drug occurred in 8 of 88 (9.1%) of subjects.

Single 1 gram dose regimen

Overall, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving a single-dose regimen of 1 gram of ZITHROMAX were related to the gastrointestinal system and were more frequently reported than in patients receiving the multiple-dose regimen.

Adverse reactions that occurred in patients on the single 1 gram dosing regimen of ZITHROMAX with a frequency of 1% or greater included diarrhea/loose stools (7%), nausea (5%), abdominal pain (5%), vomiting (2%), dyspepsia (1%), and vaginitis (1%).

6.2 Post-marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of azithromycin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions reported with azithromycin during the postmarketing period in adult and/or pediatric patients for which a causal relationship may not be established include:

Allergic: Arthralgia, edema, urticaria, and angioedema.

Cardiovascular: Arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, and hypotension. There have been reports of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting/diarrhea pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, oral candidiasis, pyloric stenosis, and tongue discoloration.

General: Asthenia, paresthesia, fatigue, malaise, and anaphylaxis

Genitourinary: Interstitial nephritis, acute renal failure, and vaginitis.

Hematopoietic: Thrombocytopenia.

Liver/Biliary: Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Nervous System: Convulsions, dizziness/vertigo, headache, somnolence, hyperactivity, nervousness, agitation, and syncope.

Psychiatric: Aggressive reaction and anxiety.

Skin/Appendages: Pruritus, and serious skin reactions including erythema multiforme, AGEP, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and DRESS.

Special Senses: Hearing disturbances including hearing loss, deafness, and/or tinnitus, and reports of taste/smell perversion and/or loss.

6.3 Laboratory Abnormalities

Significant abnormalities (irrespective of drug relationship) occurring during the clinical trials were reported as follows:

  • With an incidence of 1–2%, elevated serum creatine phosphokinase, potassium, ALT (SGPT), GGT, and AST (SGOT).
  • With an incidence of less than 1%, leukopenia, neutropenia, decreased platelet count, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, BUN, creatinine, blood glucose, LDH, and phosphate.

When follow-up was provided, changes in laboratory tests appeared to be reversible.

In multiple-dose clinical trials involving more than 3000 patients, 3 patients discontinued therapy because of treatment-related liver enzyme abnormalities and 1 because of a renal function abnormality.

In a phase 1 drug interaction study performed in normal volunteers, 1 of 6 subjects given the combination of azithromycin and rifabutin, 1 of 7 given rifabutin alone, and 0 of 6 given azithromycin alone developed a clinically significant neutropenia (<500 cells/mm3).

Laboratory abnormalities seen in clinical trials for the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium disease in severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients. [see Clinical Studies (14)]

Chronic therapy (median duration: 87.5 days, range: 1–229 days) that resulted in laboratory abnormalities in >5% of subjects with normal baseline values in the pivotal trial for treatment of disseminated MAC in severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients treated with azithromycin 600 mg daily in combination with ethambutol include: a reduction in absolute neutrophils to <50% of the lower limit of normal (10/52, 19%) and an increase to five times the upper limit of normal in alkaline phosphatase (3/35, 9%). These findings in subjects with normal baseline values are similar when compared to all subjects for analyses of neutrophil reductions (22/75, 29%) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (16/80, 20%). Causality of these laboratory abnormalities due to the use of study drug has not been established.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ZITHROMAX is a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below.

1.1 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis

1.2 Mycobacterial Infections

Prophylaxis of Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) Disease

ZITHROMAX, taken alone or in combination with rifabutin at its approved dose, is indicated for the prevention of disseminated MAC disease in persons with advanced HIV infection [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

Treatment of Disseminated MAC Disease

ZITHROMAX, taken in combination with ethambutol, is indicated for the treatment of disseminated MAC infections in persons with advanced HIV infection [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.1)].

1.3 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZITHROMAX and other antibacterial drugs, ZITHROMAX should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

ZITHROMAX® IV (azithromycin dihydrate)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZITHROMAX IV safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZITHROMAX IV.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drugs.

4.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

ZITHROMAX is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity

Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in patients on azithromycin therapy. [see Contraindications (4.1)]

Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is unknown at present.

If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that the allergic symptoms may reappear after symptomatic therapy has been discontinued.

5.2 Hepatotoxicity

Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)

Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

5.4 QT Prolongation

Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation, which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:

  • patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
  • patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
  • patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

5.5 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ZITHROMAX (azithromycin for injection), and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.6 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Exacerbations of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azitrhromycin therapy.

5 7 Infusion Site Reactions

ZITHROMAX for injection should be reconstituted and diluted as directed and administered as an intravenous infusion over not less than 60 minutes. [see Dosage and Administration (2)]

Local IV site reactions have been reported with the intravenous administration of azithromycin. The incidence and severity of these reactions were the same when 500 mg azithromycin was given over 1 hour (2 mg/mL as 250 mL infusion) or over 3 hr (1 mg/mL as 500 mL infusion) [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. All volunteers who received infusate concentrations above 2.0 mg/mL experienced local IV site reactions and, therefore, higher concentrations should be avoided.

5.8 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing ZITHROMAX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical trials of intravenous azithromycin for community-acquired pneumonia, in which 2 to 5 IV doses were given, the reported adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity and were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. The majority of patients in these trials had one or more co-morbid diseases and were receiving concomitant medications. Approximately 1.2% of the patients discontinued intravenous ZITHROMAX therapy, and a total of 2.4% discontinued azithromycin therapy by either the intravenous or oral route because of clinical or laboratory side effects.

In clinical trials conducted in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, in which 1 to 2 IV doses were given, 2% of women who received monotherapy with azithromycin and 4% who received azithromycin plus metronidazole discontinued therapy due to clinical side effects.

Clinical adverse reactions leading to discontinuations from these studies were gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and rashes; laboratory side effects leading to discontinuation were increases in transaminase levels and/or alkaline phosphatase levels.

Overall, the most common adverse reactions associated with treatment in adult patients who received IV/Oral ZITHROMAX in studies of community-acquired pneumonia were related to the gastrointestinal system with diarrhea/loose stools (4.3%), nausea (3.9%), abdominal pain (2.7%), and vomiting (1.4%) being the most frequently reported.

Approximately 12% of patients experienced a side effect related to the intravenous infusion; most common were pain at the injection site (6.5%) and local inflammation (3.1%).

The most common adverse reactions associated with treatment in adult women who received IV/Oral ZITHROMAX in trials of pelvic inflammatory disease were related to the gastrointestinal system. Diarrhea (8.5%) and nausea (6.6%) were most commonly reported, followed by vaginitis (2.8%), abdominal pain (1.9%), anorexia (1.9%), rash and pruritus (1.9%). When azithromycin was co-administered with metronidazole in these trials, a higher proportion of women experienced adverse reactions of nausea (10.3%), abdominal pain (3.7%), vomiting (2.8%), infusion site reaction, stomatitis, dizziness, or dyspnea (all at 1.9%).

Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of 1% or less included the following:

Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia, flatulence, mucositis, oral moniliasis, and gastritis.

Nervous system: Headache, somnolence.

Allergic: Bronchospasm.

Special senses: Taste perversion.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of azithromycin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions reported with azithromycin during the post-marketing period in adult and/or pediatric patients for which a causal relationship may not be established include:

Allergic: Arthralgia, edema, urticaria and angioedema.

Cardiovascular: Arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia and hypotension. There have been reports of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting/diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, oral candidiasis, pyloric stenosis, and reports of tongue discoloration.

General: Asthenia, paresthesia, fatigue, malaise and anaphylaxis (including fatalities).

Genitourinary: Interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure and vaginitis.

Hematopoietic: Thrombocytopenia.

Liver/biliary: Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Nervous system: Convulsions, dizziness/vertigo, headache, somnolence, hyperactivity, nervousness, agitation and syncope.

Psychiatric: Aggressive reaction and anxiety.

Skin/appendages: Pruritus, serious skin reactions including, erythema multiforme, AGEP, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and DRESS.

Special senses: Hearing disturbances including hearing loss, deafness and/or tinnitus and reports of taste/smell perversion and/or loss.

6.3 Laboratory Abnormalities

Significant abnormalities (irrespective of drug relationship) occurring during the clinical trials were reported as follows:

  • elevated ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), creatinine (4 to 6%)
  • elevated LDH, bilirubin (1 to 3%)
  • leukopenia, neutropenia, decreased platelet count, and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (less than 1%)

When follow-up was provided, changes in laboratory tests appeared to be reversible.

In multiple-dose clinical trials involving more than 750 patients treated with ZITHROMAX (IV/Oral), less than 2% of patients discontinued azithromycin therapy because of treatment-related liver enzyme abnormalities.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) for injection is a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.

1.1 Community-Acquired Pneumonia

due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients who require initial intravenous therapy.

1.2 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or Mycoplasma hominis in patients who require initial intravenous therapy. If anaerobic microorganisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, an antimicrobial agent with anaerobic activity should be administered in combination with ZITHROMAX.

ZITHROMAX for injection should be followed by ZITHROMAX by the oral route as required. [see Dosage and Administration (2)]

1.3 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) and other antibacterial drugs, ZITHROMAX (azithromycin) should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

ZMAX® (azithromycin dihydrate)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZMAX safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZMAX.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Zmax is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin or any macrolide or ketolide drug.

4.2 Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction

Zmax is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Allergic and Skin Reactions

Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in patients on azithromycin therapy using other formulations. Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent exposure to antigen has not been determined.

If an allergic reaction occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that reappearance of the allergic symptoms may occur when symptomatic therapy is discontinued.

5.2 Hepatotoxicity

Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)

Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

5.4 QT Prolongation

Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen in treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:

  • patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
  • patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
  • patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

5.5 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Zmax, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.6 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azithromycin therapy.

5.7 Gastrointestinal Disturbances

A higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events (8 of 19 subjects) was observed when Zmax was administered to a limited number of subjects with GFR<10 mL/min. [See Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]

5.8 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing Zmax in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults:

The data described below reflect exposure to Zmax in 728 adult patients. All patients received a single 2 g oral dose of Zmax. The population studied had community-acquired pneumonia and acute bacterial sinusitis.

In controlled clinical trials with Zmax, the majority of the reported treatment-related adverse reactions were gastrointestinal in nature and mild to moderate in severity.

Overall, the most common treatment-related adverse reactions in adult patients receiving a single 2 g dose of Zmax were diarrhea/loose stools (12%), nausea (4%), abdominal pain (3%), headache (1%), and vomiting (1%). The incidence of treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse reactions was 17% for Zmax and 10% for pooled comparators.

Treatment-related adverse reactions following Zmax treatment that occurred with a frequency of <1% included the following:

Cardiovascular: Palpitations, chest pain

Gastrointestinal: Constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastritis, oral moniliasis

Genitourinary: Vaginitis

Nervous system: Dizziness, vertigo

General: Asthenia

Allergic: Rash, pruritus, urticaria

Special senses: Taste perversion

Pediatric Patients:

The data described below reflect exposure to Zmax in 907 pediatric patients. The population was 3 months to 12 years of age. All patients received a single 60 mg/kg oral dose of Zmax.

As in adults, the most common treatment-related adverse reactions in pediatric subjects were gastrointestinal in nature. The pediatric subjects all received a single 60 mg/kg dose (equivalent to 27 mg/lb) of Zmax.

In a trial with 450 pediatric subjects (ages 3 months to 48 months), vomiting (11%), diarrhea (10%) loose stools (9%), and abdominal pain (2%) were the most frequently reported treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Many treatment related gastrointestinal adverse reactions with an incidence greater than 1% began on the day of dosing in these subjects [43% (68/160)] and most [53% (84/160)] resolved within 48 hr of onset. Treatment-related adverse events that were not gastrointestinal, occurring with a frequency ≥ 1% were: rash (5%), anorexia (2%), fever (2%), and dermatitis (2%).

In a second trial of 337 pediatric subjects, ages 2 years to 12 years, the most frequently reported treatment-related adverse reactions also included vomiting (14%), diarrhea (7%), loose stools (2%), nausea (4%) and abdominal pain (4%).

A third trial investigated the tolerability of two different concentrations of azithromycin oral suspension in 120 pediatric subjects (ages 3 months to 48 months), all of whom were treated with azithromycin. The study evaluated the hypothesis that a more dilute, less viscous formulation (the recommended 27 mg/mL concentration of Zmax) is less likely to induce vomiting in young children than a more concentrated suspension used in other pediatric studies. The vomiting rate for subjects taking the dilute concentration azithromycin was 3% (2/61). The rate was numerically lower but not statistically different from the vomiting for the more concentrated suspension Across both treatment arms, the only treatment-related adverse events with a frequency of ≥ 1% were vomiting (6%, 7/120) and diarrhea (2%, 2/120).

Treatment-related adverse reactions with a frequency of < 1% following Zmax treatment in all 907 pediatric subjects in the Phase 3 studies were:

Body as a whole: Chills, fever, flu syndrome, headache;

Digestive: Abnormal stools, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastritis, gastrointestinal disorder, hepatitis;

Hematologic and lymphatic: Leukopenia;

Nervous system: Agitation, emotional liability, hostility, hyperkinesia, insomnia, irritability, paresthesia, Somnolence;

Respiratory: Asthma, bronchitis, cough, dyspnea, pharyngitis, rhinitis;

Skin and appendages: Dermatitis, fungal dermatitis, maculopapular rash, pruritus, urticaria;

Special senses: Otitis media, taste perversion;

Urogenital: Dysuria.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience with Other Azithromycin Products

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, reliably estimating their frequency or establishing a causal relationship to drug exposure is not always possible.

Adverse events reported with azithromycin immediate release formulations during the postmarketing period for which a causal relationship may not be established include:

Allergic: Arthralgia, edema, urticaria and angioedema

Cardiovascular: Palpitations and arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia and hypotension

There have been reports of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting/diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, oral candidiasis, pyloric stenosis, and rare reports of tongue discoloration

General: Asthenia, paresthesia, fatigue, malaise and anaphylaxis

Genitourinary: Interstitial nephritis, acute renal failure and vaginitis

Hematopoietic: Thrombocytopenia, mild neutropenia

Liver/biliary: Adverse reactions related to hepatic dysfunction have been reported in postmarketing experience with azithromycin. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Nervous system: Convulsions, dizziness/vertigo, headache, somnolence, hyperactivity, nervousness, agitation and syncope

Psychiatric: Aggressive reaction and anxiety

Skin/appendages: Pruritus, rash, photosensitivity, serious skin reactions including erythema multiforme, AGEP, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and DRESS.

Special senses: Hearing disturbances including hearing loss, deafness and/or tinnitus and reports of taste/smell perversion and/or loss

6.3 Laboratory Abnormalities

In subjects with normal baseline values, the following clinically significant laboratory abnormalities (irrespective of drug relationship) were reported in Zmax clinical trials in adults and pediatric patients:

Adults:

Laboratory abnormalities with an incidence of greater than or equal to 1%: reduced lymphocytes and increased eosinophils; reduced bicarbonate. Laboratory abnormalities with an incidence of less than 1%: leukopenia, neutropenia, elevated bilirubin, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine, alterations in potassium. Where follow-up was provided, changes in laboratory tests appeared to be reversible.

Pediatric Patients:

Laboratory abnormalities with an incidence of greater than or equal to 1%: elevated eosinophils, BUN, and potassium; decreased lymphocytes; and alterations in neutrophils; with an incidence of less than 1%: elevated SGOT, SGPT and creatinine; decreased potassium; and alterations in sodium and glucose.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Adults and Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Zmax (azithromycin) is a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below. [See Clinical Studies (14)]

Acute bacterial sinusitis in adults due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Community-acquired pneumonia in adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Streptococcus pneumoniae, in patients appropriate for oral therapy. Pediatric use in this indication is based on extrapolation of adult efficacy. [See Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]

1.2 Limitations of Use

Zmax is not recommended for use in patients with pneumonia who are judged to be inappropriate for oral therapy because of moderate to severe illness or risk factors such as any of the following:

  • patients with cystic fibrosis,
  • patients with nosocomial infections,
  • patients with known or suspected bacteremia,
  • patients requiring hospitalization,
  • elderly or debilitated patients, or
  • patients with significant underlying health problems that may compromise their ability to respond to their illness (including immunodeficiency or functional asplenia).

1.3 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Zmax (azithromycin) and other antibacterial drugs, Zmax (azithromycin) should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

ZOSYN® (piperacillin, tazobactam)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZOSYN safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZOSYN.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

ZOSYN is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or β-lactamase inhibitors.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity Adverse Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic/anaphylactoid) reactions (including shock) have been reported in patients receiving therapy with ZOSYN. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin, cephalosporin, or carbapenem hypersensitivity or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with ZOSYN, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions. If an allergic reaction occurs, ZOSYN should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.2 Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

ZOSYN may cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. If patients develop a skin rash they should be monitored closely and ZOSYN discontinued if lesions progress.

5.3 Hematologic Adverse Reactions

Bleeding manifestations have occurred in some patients receiving β-lactam drugs, including piperacillin. These reactions have sometimes been associated with abnormalities of coagulation tests such as clotting time, platelet aggregation and prothrombin time, and are more likely to occur in patients with renal failure. If bleeding manifestations occur, ZOSYN should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

The leukopenia/neutropenia associated with ZOSYN administration appears to be reversible and most frequently associated with prolonged administration.

Periodic assessment of hematopoietic function should be performed, especially with prolonged therapy, i.e., ≥ 21 days [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.4 Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions

As with other penicillins, patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or convulsions if higher than recommended doses are given intravenously (particularly in the presence of renal failure).

5.5 Nephrotoxicity in Critically Ill Patients

The use of ZOSYN was found to be an independent risk factor for renal failure and was associated with delayed recovery of renal function as compared to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs in a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial in critically ill patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Based on this study, alternative treatment options should be considered in the critically ill population. If alternative treatment options are inadequate or unavailable, monitor renal function during treatment with ZOSYN [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

Combined use of piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin may be associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].

5.6 Electrolyte Effects

ZOSYN contains a total of 2.84 mEq (65 mg) of Na+ (sodium) per gram of piperacillin in the combination product. This should be considered when treating patients requiring restricted salt intake. Periodic electrolyte determinations should be performed in patients with low potassium reserves, and the possibility of hypokalemia should be kept in mind with patients who have potentially low potassium reserves and who are receiving cytotoxic therapy or diuretics.

5.7 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ZOSYN, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drug use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.8 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing ZOSYN in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

During the initial clinical investigations, 2621 patients worldwide were treated with ZOSYN in phase 3 trials. In the key North American monotherapy clinical trials (n=830 patients), 90% of the adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity and transient in nature. However, in 3.2% of the patients treated worldwide, ZOSYN was discontinued because of adverse events primarily involving the skin (1.3%), including rash and pruritus; the gastrointestinal system (0.9%), including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting; and allergic reactions (0.5%).

Table 3: Adverse Reactions from ZOSYN Monotherapy Clinical Trials
System Organ Class
  Adverse Reaction
Gastrointestinal disorders
  Diarrhea (11.3%)
  Constipation (7.7%)
  Nausea (6.9%)
  Vomiting (3.3%)
  Dyspepsia (3.3%)
  Abdominal pain (1.3%)
General disorders and administration site conditions
  Fever (2.4%)
  Injection site reaction (≤1%)
  Rigors (≤1%)
Immune system disorders
  Anaphylaxis (≤1%)
Infections and infestations
  Candidiasis (1.6%)
  Pseudomembranous colitis (≤1%)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
  Hypoglycemia (≤1%)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
  Myalgia (≤1%)
  Arthralgia (≤1%)
Nervous system disorders
  Headache (7.7%)
Psychiatric disorders
  Insomnia (6.6%)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
  Rash (4.2%, including maculopapular, bullous, and urticarial)
  Pruritus (3.1%)
  Purpura (≤1%)
Vascular disorders
  Phlebitis (1.3%)
  Thrombophlebitis (≤1%)
  Hypotension (≤1%)
  Flushing (≤1%)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
  Epistaxis (≤1%)

Nosocomial Pneumonia Trials

Two trials of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections were conducted. In one study, 222 patients were treated with ZOSYN in a dosing regimen of 4.5 g every 6 hours in combination with an aminoglycoside and 215 patients were treated with imipenem/cilastatin (500 mg/500 mg q6h) in combination with an aminoglycoside. In this trial, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 402 patients, 204 (91.9%) in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 198 (92.1%) in the imipenem/cilastatin group. Twenty-five (11.0%) patients in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 14 (6.5%) in the imipenem/cilastatin group (p > 0.05) discontinued treatment due to an adverse event.

The second trial used a dosing regimen of 3.375 g given every 4 hours with an aminoglycoside.

Table 4: Adverse Reactions from ZOSYN Plus Aminoglycoside Clinical Trials*
System Organ Class
  Adverse Reaction
*
For adverse drug reactions that appeared in both studies the higher frequency is presented.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
  Thrombocythemia (1.4%)
  Anemia (≤1%)
  Thrombocytopenia (≤1%)
  Eosinophilia (≤1%)
Gastrointestinal disorders
  Diarrhea (20%)
  Constipation (8.4%)
  Nausea (5.8%)
  Vomiting (2.7%)
  Dyspepsia (1.9%)
  Abdominal pain (1.8%)
  Stomatitis (≤1%)
General disorders and administration site conditions
  Fever (3.2%)
  Injection site reaction (≤1%)
Infections and infestations
  Oral candidiasis (3.9%)
  Candidiasis (1.8%)
Investigations
  BUN increased (1.8%)
  Blood creatinine increased (1.8%)
  Liver function test abnormal (1.4%)
  Alkaline phosphatase increased (≤1%)
  Aspartate aminotransferase increased (≤1%)
  Alanine aminotransferase increased (≤1%)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
  Hypoglycemia (≤1%)
  Hypokalemia (≤1%)
Nervous system disorders
  Headache (4.5%)
Psychiatric disorders
  Insomnia (4.5%)
Renal and urinary disorders
  Renal failure (≤1%)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
  Rash (3.9%)
  Pruritus (3.2%)
Vascular disorders
  Thrombophlebitis (1.3%)
  Hypotension (1.3%)

Other trials: Nephrotoxicity

In a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial in 1200 adult critically ill patients, piperacillin/tazobactam was found to be a risk factor for renal failure (odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.43), and associated with delayed recovery of renal function as compared to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs.1 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Pediatrics

Studies of ZOSYN in pediatric patients suggest a similar safety profile to that seen in adults. In a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial of pediatric patients with severe intra-abdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis), 273 patients were treated with ZOSYN (112.5 mg/kg every 8 hours) and 269 patients were treated with cefotaxime (50 mg/kg) plus metronidazole (7.5 mg/kg) every 8 hours. In this trial, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 146 patients, 73 (26.7%) in the ZOSYN group and 73 (27.1%) in the cefotaxime/metronidazole group. Six patients (2.2%) in the ZOSYN group and 5 patients (1.9%) in the cefotaxime/metronidazole group discontinued due to an adverse event.

Adverse Laboratory Events (Seen During Clinical Trials)

Of the trials reported, including that of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections in which a higher dose of ZOSYN was used in combination with an aminoglycoside, changes in laboratory parameters include:

Hematologic—decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, increases in platelet count, eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia. These patients were withdrawn from therapy; some had accompanying systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, rigors, chills)

Coagulation—positive direct Coombs' test, prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time

Hepatic—transient elevations of AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin

Renal—increases in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen

Additional laboratory events include abnormalities in electrolytes (i.e., increases and decreases in sodium, potassium, and calcium), hyperglycemia, decreases in total protein or albumin, blood glucose decreased, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, hypokalemia, and bleeding time prolonged.

6.2 Post-Marketing Experience

In addition to the adverse drug reactions identified in clinical trials in Table 3 and Table 4, the following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ZOSYN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hepatobiliary—hepatitis, jaundice

Hematologic—hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia

Immune—hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock)

Renal—interstitial nephritis

Respiratory—eosinophilic pneumonia

Skin and Appendages—erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), dermatitis exfoliative

6.3 Additional Experience with piperacillin

The following adverse reaction has also been reported for piperacillin for injection:

Skeletal—prolonged muscle relaxation [see Drug Interactions (7.5)].

Post-marketing experience with ZOSYN in pediatric patients suggests a similar safety profile to that seen in adults.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ZOSYN is a combination product consisting of a penicillin-class antibacterial, piperacillin, and a β-lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam, indicated for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below.

1.1 Intra-abdominal Infections

Appendicitis (complicated by rupture or abscess) and peritonitis caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Escherichia coli or the following members of the Bacteroides fragilis group: B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, or B. vulgatus. The individual members of this group were studied in fewer than 10 cases.

1.2 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections, including cellulitis, cutaneous abscesses and ischemic/diabetic foot infections caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

1.3 Female Pelvic Infections

Postpartum endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Escherichia coli.

1.4 Community-acquired Pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (moderate severity only) caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae.

1.5 Nosocomial Pneumonia

Nosocomial pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by β-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and by piperacillin/tazobactam-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Nosocomial pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa should be treated in combination with an aminoglycoside) [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

1.6 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZOSYN and other antibacterial drugs, ZOSYN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

ZYVOX® (linezolid)

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZYVOX safety and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZYVOX.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

ZYVOX formulations are contraindicated for use in patients who have known hypersensitivity to linezolid or any of the other product components.

4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Linezolid should not be used in patients taking any medicinal product which inhibits monoamine oxidases A or B (e.g., phenelzine, isocarboxazid) or within two weeks of taking any such medicinal product.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Myelosuppression

Myelosuppression (including anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) has been reported in patients receiving linezolid. In cases where the outcome is known, when linezolid was discontinued, the affected hematologic parameters have risen toward pretreatment levels. Complete blood counts should be monitored weekly in patients who receive linezolid, particularly in those who receive linezolid for longer than two weeks, those with pre-existing myelosuppression, those receiving concomitant drugs that produce bone marrow suppression, or those with a chronic infection who have received previous or concomitant antibiotic therapy. Discontinuation of therapy with linezolid should be considered in patients who develop or have worsening myelosuppression.

5.2 Peripheral and Optic Neuropathy

Peripheral and optic neuropathies have been reported in patients treated with ZYVOX, primarily in those patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days. In cases of optic neuropathy that progressed to loss of vision, patients were treated for extended periods beyond the maximum recommended duration. Visual blurring has been reported in some patients treated with ZYVOX for less than 28 days. Peripheral and optic neuropathy has also been reported in children.

If patients experience symptoms of visual impairment, such as changes in visual acuity, changes in color vision, blurred vision, or visual field defect, prompt ophthalmic evaluation is recommended. Visual function should be monitored in all patients taking ZYVOX for extended periods (≥ 3 months) and in all patients reporting new visual symptoms regardless of length of therapy with ZYVOX. If peripheral or optic neuropathy occurs, the continued use of ZYVOX in these patients should be weighed against the potential risks.

5.3 Serotonin Syndrome

Spontaneous reports of serotonin syndrome including fatal cases associated with the co-administration of ZYVOX and serotonergic agents, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been reported.

Unless clinically appropriate and patients are carefully observed for signs and/or symptoms of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like (NMS-like) reactions, linezolid should not be administered to patients with carcinoid syndrome and/or patients taking any of the following medications: serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonists (triptans), meperidine, bupropion, or buspirone [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In some cases, a patient already receiving a serotonergic antidepressant or buspirone may require urgent treatment with linezolid. If alternatives to linezolid are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions, the serotonergic antidepressant should be stopped promptly and linezolid administered. The patient should be monitored for two weeks (five weeks if fluoxetine was taken) or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid, whichever comes first. Symptoms of serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions include hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma. The patient should also be monitored for discontinuation symptoms of the antidepressant (see package insert of the specified agent(s) for a description of the associated discontinuation symptoms).

5.4 Mortality Imbalance in an Investigational Study in Patients with Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections, including those with catheter-site infections

An imbalance in mortality was seen in patients treated with linezolid relative to vancomycin/dicloxacillin/oxacillin in an open-label study in seriously ill patients with intravascular catheter-related infections [78/363 (21.5%) vs. 58/363 (16.0%); odds ratio 1.426, 95% CI 0.970, 2.098]. While causality has not been established, this observed imbalance occurred primarily in linezolid-treated patients in whom either Gram-negative pathogens, mixed Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, or no pathogen were identified at baseline, but was not seen in patients with Gram-positive infections only.

Linezolid is not approved and should not be used for the treatment of patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections or catheter-site infections.

Linezolid has no clinical activity against Gram-negative pathogens and is not indicated for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. It is critical that specific Gram-negative therapy be initiated immediately if a concomitant Gram-negative pathogen is documented or suspected [see Indications and Usage (1)].

5.5 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ZYVOX, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use.

Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.6 Potential Interactions Producing Elevation of Blood Pressure

Unless patients are monitored for potential increases in blood pressure, linezolid should not be administered to patients with uncontrolled hypertension, pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxicosis and/or patients taking any of the following types of medications: directly and indirectly acting sympathomimetic agents (e.g., pseudoephedrine), vasopressive agents (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine), dopaminergic agents (e.g., dopamine, dobutamine) [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.7 Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis has been reported with the use of ZYVOX. In reported cases, patients experienced repeated episodes of nausea and vomiting. Patients who develop recurrent nausea or vomiting, unexplained acidosis, or a low bicarbonate level while receiving ZYVOX should receive immediate medical evaluation.

5.8 Convulsions

Convulsions have been reported in patients when treated with linezolid. In some of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures was reported.

5.9 Hypoglycemia

Postmarketing cases of symptomatic hypoglycemia have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents when treated with linezolid, a reversible, nonselective MAO inhibitor. Some MAO inhibitors have been associated with hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients receiving insulin or hypoglycemic agents. While a causal relationship between linezolid and hypoglycemia has not been established, diabetic patients should be cautioned of potential hypoglycemic reactions when treated with linezolid.

If hypoglycemia occurs, a decrease in the dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agent, or discontinuation of oral hypoglycemic agent, insulin, or linezolid may be required.

5.10 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing ZYVOX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults:

The safety of ZYVOX formulations was evaluated in 2046 adult patients enrolled in seven Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trials, who were treated for up to 28 days.

Of the patients treated for uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (uSSSIs), 25.4% of ZYVOX-treated and 19.6% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. For all other indications, 20.4% of ZYVOX -treated and 14.3% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event.

Table 2 shows the incidence of all-causality, treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in at least 1% of adult patients in these trials by dose of ZYVOX.

Table 2. Incidence (%) of Treatment–Emergent Adverse Reactions Occurring in >1% of Adult Patients Treated with ZYVOX in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials
ADVERSE REACTIONS Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications
ZYVOX
400 mg by mouth every
12 hours
(n=548)
Clarithromycin
250 mg by mouth every
12 hours
(n=537)
ZYVOX
600 mg every
12 hours
(n=1498)
All Other Comparators*
(n=1464)
*
Comparators included cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg by mouth every 12 hours; ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hours; dicloxacillin 500 mg by mouth every 6 hours; oxacillin 2 g intravenously every 6 hours; vancomycin 1 g intravenously every 12 hours.
Headache 8.8 8.4 5.7 4.4
Diarrhea 8.2 6.1 8.3 6.4
Nausea 5.1 4.5 6.6 4.6
Vomiting 2.0 1.5 4.3 2.3
Dizziness 2.6 3.0 1.8 1.5
Rash 1.1 1.1 2.3 2.6
Anemia 0.4 0 2.1 1.4
Taste alteration 1.8 2.0 1.0 0.3
Vaginal moniliasis 1.8 1.3 1.1 0.5
Oral moniliasis 0.5 0 1.7 1.0
Abnormal liver function tests 0.4 0.2 1.6 0.8
Fungal infection 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.2
Tongue discoloration 1.3 0 0.3 0
Localized abdominal pain 1.3 0.6 1.2 0.8
Generalized abdominal pain 0.9 0.4 1.2 1.0

Of the patients treated for uSSSIs, 3.5% of ZYVOX-treated and 2.4% of comparator-treated patients discontinued treatment due to drug-related adverse events. For all other indications, discontinuations due to drug-related adverse events occurred in 2.1% of ZYVOX-treated and 1.7% of comparator-treated patients. The most common reported drug-related adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment were nausea, headache, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Pediatric Patients:

The safety of ZYVOX formulations was evaluated in 215 pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years, and in 248 pediatric patients aged 5 through 17 years (146 of these 248 were age 5 through 11 and 102 were age 12 to 17). These patients were enrolled in two Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trials and were treated for up to 28 days. In the study of hospitalized pediatric patients (birth through 11 years) with Gram-positive infections, who were randomized 2 to 1 (linezolid: vancomycin), mortality was 6.0% (13/215) in the linezolid arm and 3.0% (3/101) in the vancomycin arm. However, given the severe underlying illness in the patient population, no causality could be established.

Of the pediatric patients treated for uSSSIs, 19.2% of ZYVOX-treated and 14.1% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. For all other indications, 18.8% of ZYVOX-treated and 34.3% of comparator-treated patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event.

Table 3 shows the incidence of all-causality, treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in more than 1% of pediatric patients (and more than 1 patient) in either treatment group in the comparator-controlled Phase 3 trials.

Table 3. Incidence (%) of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Occurring in > 1% of Pediatric Patients (and >1 Patient) in Either Treatment Group in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials
ADVERSE REACTIONS Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections* All Other Indications
ZYVOX
(n=248)
Cefadroxil
(n=251)
ZYVOX
(n=215)
Vancomycin
(n=101)
*
Patients 5 through 11 years of age received ZYVOX 10 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 15 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours. Patients 12 years or older received ZYVOX 600 mg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 500 mg by mouth every 12 hours.
Patients from birth through 11 years of age received ZYVOX 10 mg/kg intravenously by mouth every 8 hours or vancomycin 10 to 15 mg/kg intravenously every 6–24 hours, depending on age and renal clearance.
Diarrhea 7.8 8.0 10.8 12.1
Vomiting 2.9 6.4 9.4 9.1
Headache 6.5 4.0 0.9 0
Anemia 0 0 5.6 7.1
Thrombocytopenia 0 0 4.7 2.0
Nausea 3.7 3.2 1.9 0
Generalized abdominal pain 2.4 2.8 0.9 2.0
Localized abdominal pain 2.4 2.8 0.5 1.0
Loose stools 1.6 0.8 2.3 3.0
Eosinophilia 0.4 0.8 1.9 1.0
Pruritus at non-application site 0.8 0.4 1.4 2.0
Vertigo 1.2 0.4 0 0

Of the pediatric patients treated for uSSSIs, 1.6% of ZYVOX-treated and 2.4% of comparator-treated patients discontinued treatment due to drug-related adverse events. For all other indications, discontinuations due to drug-related adverse events occurred in 0.9% of ZYVOX-treated and 6.1% of comparator-treated patients.

Laboratory Abnormalities:

ZYVOX has been associated with thrombocytopenia when used in doses up to and including 600 mg every 12 hours for up to 28 days. In Phase 3 comparator-controlled trials, the percentage of adult patients who developed a substantially low platelet count (defined as less than 75% of lower limit of normal and/or baseline) was 2.4% (range among studies: 0.3 to 10.0%) with ZYVOX and 1.5% (range among studies: 0.4 to 7.0%) with a comparator. In a study of hospitalized pediatric patients ranging in age from birth through 11 years, the percentage of patients who developed a substantially low platelet count (defined as less than 75% of lower limit of normal and/or baseline) was 12.9% with ZYVOX and 13.4% with vancomycin. In an outpatient study of pediatric patients aged from 5 through 17 years, the percentage of patients who developed a substantially low platelet count was 0% with ZYVOX and 0.4% with cefadroxil. Thrombocytopenia associated with the use of ZYVOX appears to be dependent on duration of therapy (generally greater than 2 weeks of treatment). The platelet counts for most patients returned to the normal range/baseline during the follow-up period. No related clinical adverse events were identified in Phase 3 clinical trials in patients developing thrombocytopenia. Bleeding events were identified in thrombocytopenic patients in a compassionate use program for ZYVOX; the role of linezolid in these events cannot be determined [see Warning and Precautions (5.1)].

Changes seen in other laboratory parameters, without regard to drug relationship, revealed no substantial differences between ZYVOX and the comparators. These changes were generally not clinically significant, did not lead to discontinuation of therapy, and were reversible. The incidence of adult and pediatric patients with at least one substantially abnormal hematologic or serum chemistry value is presented in Tables 4, 5, 6, and 7.

Table 4. Percent of Adult Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Hematology Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with ZYVOX
Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications
ZYVOX 400 mg every 12 hours Clarithromycin 250 mg every 12 hours ZYVOX 600 mg every 12 hours All Other Comparators
*
<75% (<50% for neutrophils) of Lower Limit of Normal (LLN) for values normal at baseline;
<75% (<50% for neutrophils) of LLN and of baseline for values abnormal at baseline.
Comparators included cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg by mouth every 12 hours; ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hours; dicloxacillin 500 mg by mouth every 6 hours; oxacillin 2 g intravenously every 6 hours; vancomycin 1 g intravenously every 12 hours.
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 0.9 0.0 7.1 6.6
Platelet count (× 103/mm3) 0.7 0.8 3.0 1.8
WBC (× 103/mm3) 0.2 0.6 2.2 1.3
Neutrophils (× 103/mm3) 0.0 0.2 1.1 1.2
Table 5. Percent of Adult Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Serum Chemistry Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with ZYVOX
Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications
ZYVOX 400 mg every 12 hours Clarithromycin 250 mg every 12 hours ZYVOX 600 mg every 12 hours All Other Comparators
*
>2 × Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) for values normal at baseline;
>2 × ULN and >2 × baseline for values abnormal at baseline.
Comparators included cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg by mouth every 12 hours; ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hours; dicloxacillin 500 mg by mouth every 6 hours; oxacillin 2 g intravenously every 6 hours; vancomycin 1 g intravenously every 12 hours.
AST (U/L) 1.7 1.3 5.0 6.8
ALT (U/L) 1.7 1.7 9.6 9.3
LDH (U/L) 0.2 0.2 1.8 1.5
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 0.2 0.2 3.5 3.1
Lipase (U/L) 2.8 2.6 4.3 4.2
Amylase (U/L) 0.2 0.2 2.4 2.0
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.2 0.0 0.9 1.1
BUN (mg/dL) 0.2 0.0 2.1 1.5
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.6
Table 6. Percent of Pediatric Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Hematology Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with ZYVOX
Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications
ZYVOX Cefadroxil ZYVOX Vancomycin
*
<75% (<50% for neutrophils) of Lower Limit of Normal (LLN) for values normal at baseline;
<75% (<50% for neutrophils) of LLN and <75% (<50% for neutrophils, <90% for hemoglobin if baseline <LLN) of baseline for values abnormal at baseline.
Patients 5 through 11 years of age received ZYVOX 10 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 15 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours. Patients 12 years or older received ZYVOX 600 mg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 500 mg by mouth every 12 hours.
Patients from birth through 11 years of age received ZYVOX 10 mg/kg intravenously by mouth every 8 hours or vancomycin 10 to 15 mg/kg intravenously every 6–24 hours, depending on age and renal clearance.
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 0.0 0.0 15.7 12.4
Platelet count (× 103/mm3) 0.0 0.4 12.9 13.4
WBC (× 103/mm3) 0.8 0.8 12.4 10.3
Neutrophils (× 103/mm3) 1.2 0.8 5.9 4.3
Table 7. Percent of Pediatric Patients who Experienced at Least One Substantially Abnormal* Serum Chemistry Laboratory Value in Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trials with ZYVOX
Laboratory Assay Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections All Other Indications
ZYVOX Cefadroxil ZYVOX Vancomycin
*
>2 × Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) for values normal at baseline; >2 × ULN and >2 (>1.5 for total bilirubin) × baseline for values abnormal at baseline.
Patients 5 through 11 years of age received ZYVOX 10 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 15 mg/kg by mouth every 12 hours. Patients 12 years or older received ZYVOX 600 mg mouth every 12 hours or cefadroxil 500 mg by mouth every 12 hours.
Patients from birth through 11 years of age received ZYVOX 10 mg/kg intravenously/by mouth every 8 hours or vancomycin 10 to 15 mg/kg intravenously every 6–24 hours, depending on age and renal clearance.
ALT (U/L) 0.0 0.0 10.1 12.5
Lipase (U/L) 0.4 1.2 --- ---
Amylase (U/L) --- --- 0.6 1.3
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) --- --- 6.3 5.2
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.4 0.0 2.4 1.0

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of ZYVOX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

  • Myelosuppression (including anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]; sideroblastic anemia.
  • Peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy sometimes progressing to loss of vision [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
  • Lactic acidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Although these reports have primarily been in patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days, these events have also been reported in patients receiving shorter courses of therapy.
  • Serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving concomitant serotonergic agents, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and ZYVOX [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
  • Convulsions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
  • Anaphylaxis, angioedema, and bullous skin disorders including severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) such as toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
  • Superficial tooth discoloration and tongue discoloration have been reported with the use of linezolid. The tooth discoloration was removable with professional dental cleaning (manual descaling) in cases with known outcome.
  • Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ZYVOX is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below. ZYVOX is not indicated for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. It is critical that specific Gram-negative therapy be initiated immediately if a concomitant Gram-negative pathogen is documented or suspected [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

1.1 Pneumonia

Nosocomial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates) or Streptococcus pneumoniae [see Clinical Studies (14)].

Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases with concurrent bacteremia, or Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only) [see Clinical Studies (14)].

1.2 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections, without concomitant osteomyelitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae. ZYVOX has not been studied in the treatment of decubitus ulcers [see Clinical Studies (14)].

Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only) or Streptococcus pyogenes [see Clinical Studies (14)].

1.3 Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Infections

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections, including cases with concurrent bacteremia [see Clinical Studies (14)].

1.4 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZYVOX and other antibacterial drugs, ZYVOX should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

The safety and efficacy of ZYVOX formulations given for longer than 28 days have not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials.