8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Based on animal reproduction studies and its mechanism of action, SUTENT can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. There are no available data in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. In animal developmental and reproductive toxicology studies, oral administration of sunitinib to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout organogenesis resulted in teratogenicity (embryolethality, craniofacial and skeletal malformations) at 5.5 and 0.3 times the combined AUC (the combined systemic exposure of sunitinib plus its active metabolite) in patients administered the recommended daily doses (RDD) of 50 mg, respectively (see Data). Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In a female fertility and early embryonic development study, female rats were administered oral sunitinib (0.5, 1.5, 5 mg/kg/day) for 21 days prior to mating and for 7 days after mating. Embryolethality was observed at 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg).
In embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies, oral sunitinib was administered to pregnant rats (0.3, 1.5, 3, 5 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (0.5, 1, 5, 20 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis. In rats, embryolethality and skeletal malformations of the ribs and vertebrae were observed at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 5.5 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg). No adverse fetal effects were observed in rats at doses ≤3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg). In rabbits, embryolethality was observed at 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg), and craniofacial malformations (cleft lip and cleft palate) were observed at ≥1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.3 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg).
Sunitinib (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/day) was evaluated in a pre- and postnatal development study in pregnant rats. Maternal body weight gains were reduced during gestation and lactation at doses ≥1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg). At 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg), reduced neonate body weights were observed at birth and persisted in the offspring of both sexes during the preweaning period and in males during postweaning period. No adverse developmental effects were observed at doses ≤1 mg/kg/day.
There is no information regarding the presence of sunitinib and its metabolites in human milk. Sunitinib and its metabolites were excreted in rat milk at concentrations up to 12-fold higher than in plasma (see Data). Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with SUTENT and for at least 4 weeks after the last dose.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
SUTENT can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Verify pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating treatment with SUTENT.
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with SUTENT and for at least 4 weeks after the last dose.
Based on findings in animals, SUTENT may impair male and female fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of SUTENT in pediatric patients have not been established. Safety and pharmacokinetics of sunitinib were assessed in an open-label study (NCT00387920) in pediatric patients 2 years to <17 years of age (n=29) with refractory solid tumors. In addition, efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sunitinib was assessed in another open-label study (NCT01462695) in pediatric patients 2 years to <17 years of age (n=27) with high-grade glioma or ependymoma. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) normalized for body surface area (BSA) was lower in pediatric patients compared to adults. Sunitinib was poorly tolerated in pediatric patients. The occurrence of dose-limiting cardiotoxicity prompted an amendment of the NCT00387920 study to exclude patients with previous exposure to anthracyclines or cardiac radiation. No responses were reported in patients in either of the trials.
Apparent clearance and volume of distribution normalized for BSA for sunitinib and its active major metabolite were lower in pediatrics as compared to adults.
The effect on open tibial growth plates in pediatric patients who received SUTENT has not been adequately studied. See Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data below.
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Physeal dysplasia was present in cynomolgus monkeys with open growth plates treated with sunitinib for ≥3 months (3 month dosing 2, 6, 12 mg/kg/day; 8 cycles of dosing 0.3, 1.5, 6.0 mg/kg/day) at doses that were >0.4 times the combined AUC (the combined systemic exposure of sunitinib plus its active metabolite) in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg. The no-effect level (NOEL) was 1.5 mg/kg/day in monkeys treated intermittently for 8 cycles, but was not identified in monkeys treated continuously for 3 months. In developing rats treated continuously for 3 months (1.5, 5.0, and 15.0 mg/kg) or 5 cycles (0.3, 1.5, and 6.0 mg/kg/day), bone abnormalities consisted of thickening of the epiphyseal cartilage of the femur and an increase of fracture of the tibia at doses ≥5 mg/kg (approximately 10 times the combined AUC in patients administered the RDD of 50 mg). Additionally, tooth caries were present in rats at >5 mg/kg. The incidence and severity of physeal dysplasia were dose related and reversible upon cessation of treatment; however, findings in the teeth were not. In rats, the NOEL in bones was ≤2 mg/kg/day.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the 7527 patients with GIST, RCC (advanced and adjuvant), or pNET who received SUTENT, 32% were 65 years and older, and 7% were 75 years and older. Patients aged 65 years of age and older had a higher incidence of Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (67%) than younger patients (60%).
In the GIST study, 73 (30%) of the patients who received SUTENT were 65 years and older. In the mRCC study, 152 (41%) of patients who received SUTENT were 65 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients.
In the pNET study, 22 (27%) of the patients who received SUTENT were 65 years and older. Clinical studies of SUTENT did not include sufficient numbers of patients with pNET to determine if patients 65 years of age and older respond differently than younger patients.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate (Child-Pugh Class A or B) hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. SUTENT was not studied in patients with severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment.
8.7 Renal Impairment
No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild (CLcr 50 to 80 mL/min), moderate (CLcr 30 to <50 mL/min), or severe (CLcr <30 mL/min) renal impairment who are not on dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].