8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Postmarketing reports of SOMAVERT use in pregnant women are insufficient to establish a drug-associated risk for major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Acromegaly may improve during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). In animal reproduction studies, fetotoxicity was observed at a dose that was 6 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area following subcutaneous administration of pegvisomant during organogenesis or during the preimplantation period (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryofetal risk
Published data from case reports, case series, and a small interventional study in pregnant women with acromegaly have demonstrated that acromegaly may improve or stabilize without treatment during pregnancy, particularly if acromegaly is treated before pregnancy. In rare cases, acromegaly may worsen during pregnancy. Since IGF-1 levels may change physiologically during pregnancy and interpreting IGF-1 and growth hormone levels in pregnant women with acromegaly may be unreliable, clinical monitoring is recommended.
The effects of pegvisomant on early embryonic development and embryo-fetal development were evaluated in two separate studies, which were conducted in pregnant rabbits with pegvisomant at subcutaneous doses of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of teratogenic effects associated with pegvisomant administration during organogenesis. At the 10-mg/kg/day dose (6 times the maximum human therapeutic dose based on body surface area), a reproducible, slight increase in post-implantation loss was observed in both studies.
Limited information from a case report in published literature reported that the level of pegvisomant in human milk was below the level of detection. There is no information available on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for SOMAVERT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from SOMAVERT or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as the therapeutic benefits of a reduction in growth hormone (GH) levels and normalization of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration in acromegalic females treated with pegvisomant may lead to improved fertility.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of SOMAVERT in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of SOMAVERT did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.