WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Morphine Sulfate Injection exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient's risk prior to prescribing Morphine Sulfate Injection, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions (see WARNINGS).
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Morphine Sulfate Injection. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Morphine Sulfate Injection or following a dose increase. Because of delay in maximum central nervous system (CNS) effect with intravenously administered morphine (30 min), rapid intravenous administration may result in overdosing (see WARNINGS).
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of Morphine Sulfate Injection during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available (see WARNINGS).
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death (see WARNINGS, Drug Interactions).
- Reserve concomitant prescribing of Morphine Sulfate Injection and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
- Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
- Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.