8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no available data on palonosetron HCl use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk.
In animal reproduction studies, no effects on embryo-fetal development were observed with the administration of oral palonosetron HCl during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 1,894 and 3,789 times the recommended human intravenous dose in rats and rabbits, respectively (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In animal reproduction studies, no effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in pregnant rats given oral palonosetron HCl at doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (1,894 times the recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) or pregnant rabbits given oral doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (3,789 times the recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) during the period of organogenesis.
There are no data on the presence of palonosetron in human milk, the effects of palonosetron on the breastfed infant, or the effects of palonosetron on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Palonosetron HCl Injection and any potential adverse effect on the breastfed infant from palonosetron or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting
Safety and effectiveness of Palonosetron HCl Injection have been established in pediatric patients aged 1 month to less than 17 years for the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including HEC. Use is supported by a clinical trial where 165 pediatric patients aged 2 months to less than 17 years were randomized to receive a single dose of palonosetron 20 mcg/kg (maximum 1.5 mg) administered as an intravenous infusion 30 minutes prior to the start of emetogenic chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. While this study demonstrated that pediatric patients require a higher palonosetron dose than adults to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, the safety profile is consistent with the established profile in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Safety and effectiveness of Palonosetron HCL Injection in neonates (less than 1 month of age) have not been established.
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Studies
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Two pediatric trials were performed.
Pediatric Study 1, a dose finding study was conducted to compare two doses of palonosetron, 1 mcg/kg (maximum 0.075 mg) versus 3 mcg/kg (maximum 0.25 mg). A total of 150 pediatric surgical patients participated, age range 1 month to less than 17 years. No dose response was observed.
Pediatric Study 2, a multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel group, active control, single-dose non-inferiority study, compared intravenous palonosetron HCl (1 mcg/kg, maximum 0.075 mg) versus intravenous ondansetron. A total of 670 pediatric surgical patients participated, age 30 days to less than 17 years. The primary efficacy endpoint, Complete Response (CR: no vomiting, no retching, and no antiemetic rescue medication) during the first 24 hours postoperatively was achieved in 78.2% of patients in the palonosetron group and 82.7% in the ondansetron group. Given the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -10%, the stratum adjusted Mantel-Haenszel statistical non-inferiority confidence interval for the difference in the primary endpoint, complete response (CR), was [-10.5, 1.7%], therefore non-inferiority was not demonstrated. Adverse reactions to palonosetron were similar to those reported in adults.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the 1374 adult cancer patients in clinical studies of intravenously administered palonosetron HCl, 316 (23%) were 65 years and over, while 71 (5%) were at least 75 years and over. Of the 1520 adult patients in clinical studies of intravenously administered palonosetron HCl, 73 (5%) were at least 65 years old [see Clinical Studies (14.1, 14.3)]. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Population pharmacokinetics analysis did not reveal any differences in palonosetron pharmacokinetics between cancer patients 65 years of age and older compared to younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose adjustment is required for geriatric patients.