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ondansetron injection, USP - VIAL Warnings and Precautions

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and bronchospasm, have been reported in patients who have exhibited hypersensitivity to other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

5.2 QT Prolongation

Ondansetron prolongs the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. In addition, postmarketing cases of Torsade de Pointes have been reported in patients using ondansetron. Avoid ondansetron in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is recommended in patients with electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia), congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, or patients taking other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation.

5.3 Serotonin Syndrome

The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Most reports have been associated with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors, mirtazapine, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, and intravenous methylene blue). Some of the reported cases were fatal. Serotonin syndrome occurring with overdose of ondansetron alone has also been reported. The majority of reports of serotonin syndrome related to 5-HT3 receptor antagonist use occurred in a post-anesthesia care unit or an infusion center.

Symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome may include the following combination of signs and symptoms: mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, with or without gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, especially with concomitant use of ondansetron and other serotonergic drugs. If symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, discontinue ondansetron and initiate supportive treatment. Patients should be informed of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome, especially if ondansetron is used concomitantly with other serotonergic drugs [see Drug Interactions (7.5), Overdosage (10)].

5.4 Myocardial Ischemia

Myocardial ischemia has been reported in patients treated with ondansetron. In some cases, predominantly during intravenous administration, the symptoms appeared immediately after administration but resolved with prompt treatment. Coronary artery spasm appears to be the most common underlying cause. Therefore, do not exceed the recommended infusion rate of ondansetron and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia during and after administration [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.5 Masking of Progressive Ileus and Gastric Distension

The use of ondansetron in patients following abdominal surgery or in patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may mask a progressive ileus and gastric distension. Monitor for decreased bowel activity, particularly in patients with risk factors for gastrointestinal obstruction.

Ondansetron is not a drug that stimulates gastric or intestinal peristalsis. It should not be used instead of nasogastric suction.

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