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morphine sulfate injection, USP 25 MG/ML, 50 MG/ML VIAL Indications and Usage

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Morphine sulfate is indicated for the relief of severe pain. It is used preoperatively to sedate the patient and allay apprehension, facilitate anesthesia induction and reduce anesthetic dosage. It is likewise effective in the control of post-operative pain.

The use of morphine for the relief of pain should be reserved for the more severe manifestations of pain, as in myocardial infarction, severe injuries, or in severe chronic pain associated with terminal cancer after all non-narcotic analgesics have failed.

Effective analgesic therapy of severe chronic pain associated with terminal cancer continues to be a difficult problem. Intermittent administration of intramuscular morphine may be effective; however, the mode of therapy has significant limitations. Morphine has a short plasma half-life of 2.5 to 3.0 hours; therefore, frequent administration (every 1 to 2 hours) often becomes necessary to control severe pain associated with cancer. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects and increasingly higher doses of morphine are required to produce analgesia. The higher morphine doses produce significant and often life-threatening side effects (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). The peak and trough effects produced by intermittent administration cause fluctuations in pain control. Repeated intramuscular injections are frequently unacceptable due to the lack of muscle mass in the debilitated patient, the tendency for bruising and bleeding at the injection site, and the anxiety and pain associated with the injection.

Continuous intravenous infusion of morphine (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) has been employed as an alternative to traditional modes of administration. Lower doses of morphine produce uniform pain control because a steady morphine concentration is maintained. Titration of the dosage to the patient's needs is easily achieved by adjusting the infusion rate. The lag time between the patient's request for pain medication and administration of the dose and the amount of nursing time necessary for preparation and administration of frequent doses are reduced. The degree of respiratory depression and sedation may be decreased, and the anxiety experienced by the patient in anticipation of intramuscular administration is avoided. Some Investigators feel that tolerance to the analgesic effects may develop more slowly with continuous intravenous infusion.

In addition to analgesia, the drug may relieve anxiety and reduce left ventricular work by reducing preload pressure. Morphine is also used in the therapy of dyspnea associated with acute left ventricular and pulmonary edema. Care must be taken to avoid inducing respiratory depression in such patients.

For open-heart surgery, especially in high risk patients with cardiac disease, some anesthesiologists use morphine to produce anesthesia.

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