8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Although available data with NYVEPRIA or pegfilgrastim product use in pregnant women are insufficient to establish whether there is a drug associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes, there are available data from published studies in pregnant women exposed to filgrastim products. These studies have not established an association of filgrastim product use during pregnancy with major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.
In animal studies, no evidence of reproductive/developmental toxicity occurred in the offspring of pregnant rats that received cumulative doses of pegfilgrastim approximately 10 times the recommended human dose (based on body surface area). In pregnant rabbits, increased embryolethality and spontaneous abortions occurred at 4 times the maximum recommended human dose simultaneously with signs of maternal toxicity (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Pregnant rabbits were dosed with pegfilgrastim subcutaneously every other day during the period of organogenesis. At cumulative doses ranging from the approximate human dose to approximately 4 times the recommended human dose (based on body surface area), the treated rabbits exhibited decreased maternal food consumption, maternal weight loss, as well as reduced fetal body weights and delayed ossification of the fetal skull; however, no structural anomalies were observed in the offspring from either study. Increased incidences of post-implantation losses and spontaneous abortions (more than half the pregnancies) were observed at cumulative doses approximately 4 times the recommended human dose, which were not seen when pregnant rabbits were exposed to the recommended human dose.
Three studies were conducted in pregnant rats dosed with pegfilgrastim at cumulative doses up to approximately 10 times the recommended human dose at the following stages of gestation: during the period of organogenesis, from mating through the first half of pregnancy, and from the first trimester through delivery and lactation. No evidence of fetal loss or structural malformations was observed in any study. Cumulative doses equivalent to approximately 3 and 10 times the recommended human dose resulted in transient evidence of wavy ribs in fetuses of treated mothers (detected at the end of gestation but no longer present in pups evaluated at the end of lactation).
There are no data on the presence of pegfilgrastim products in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Other filgrastim products are secreted poorly into breast milk, and filgrastim products are not absorbed orally by neonates. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for NYVEPRIA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from NYVEPRIA or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of pegfilgrastim have been established in pediatric patients. No overall differences in safety were identified between adult and pediatric patients based on postmarketing surveillance and review of the scientific literature.
Use of pegfilgrastim in pediatric patients for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is based on adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional pharmacokinetic and safety data in pediatric patients with sarcoma [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)].