Following parenteral administration naloxone is rapidly distributed in the body and readily crosses the placenta. Plasma protein binding occurs but is relatively weak. Plasma albumin is the major binding constituent but significant binding of naloxone also occurs to plasma constituents other than albumin. It is not known whether naloxone is excreted into human milk.
Metabolism and Elimination
Naloxone is metabolized in the liver primarily by glucuronide conjugation with naloxone-3-glucuronide as the major metabolite. In one study, the serum half-life in adults ranged from 30 to 81 minutes (mean 64 ± 12 minutes). In a neonatal study, the mean plasma half-life was observed to be 3.1 ± 0.5 hours. After an oral or intravenous dose, about 25 to 40% of the drug is excreted as metabolites in urine within 6 hours, about 50% in 24 hours, and 60 to 70% in 72 hours.