DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection, USP may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The most rapid onset of action is achieved by intravenous administration and it is recommended in emergency situations.
Since the duration of action of some opioids may exceed that of naloxone, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance. Repeated doses of naloxone should be administered, as necessary.
Intravenous Infusion: Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection, USP may be diluted for intravenous infusion in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The addition of 2 mg of naloxone hydrochloride in 500 mL of either solution provides a concentration of 0.004 mg/mL. Mixtures should be used within 24 hours. After 24 hours, the remaining unused solution must be discarded. The rate of administration should be titrated in accordance with the patient's response.
Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection, USP should not be mixed with preparations containing bisulfite, metabisulfite, long-chain or high molecular weight anions, or any solution having an alkaline pH. No drug or chemical agent should be added to Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection, USP unless its effect on the chemical and physical stability of the solution has first been established.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
Usage in Adults:
Opioid Overdose—Known or Suspected: An initial dose of 0.4 mg to 2 mg of naloxone hydrochloride may be administered intravenously. If the desired degree of counteraction and improvement in respiratory functions is not obtained, it may be repeated at 2 to 3 minute intervals. If no response is observed after 10 mg of naloxone hydrochloride have been administered, the diagnosis of opioid induced or partial opioid induced toxicity should be questioned. Intramuscular or subcutaneous administration may be necessary if the intravenous route is not available.
Postoperative Opioid Depression: For the partial reversal of opioid depression following the use of opioids during surgery, smaller doses of naloxone hydrochloride are usually sufficient. The dose of naloxone should be titrated according to the patient's response. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression, naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.1 to 0.2 mg intravenously at two to three minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal, i.e., adequate ventilation and alertness without significant pain or discomfort. Larger than necessary dosage of naloxone may result in significant reversal of analgesia and increase in blood pressure. Similarly, too rapid reversal may induce nausea, vomiting, sweating or circulatory stress.
Repeat doses of naloxone may be required within one to two hour intervals depending upon the amount, type (i.e., short or long acting) and time interval since last administration of opioid. Supplemental intramuscular doses have been shown to produce a longer lasting effect.
Septic Shock: The optimal dosage of Naloxone or duration of therapy for the treatment of hypotension in septic shock patients has not been established (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
Usage in Pediatric Population:
Opioid Overdose—Known or Suspected: The usual initial dose in pediatric patients is 0.01 mg/kg body weight given I.V. If this dose does not result in the desired degree of clinical improvement, a subsequent dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight may be administered. If an I.V. route of administration is not available, Naloxone Hydrochloride may be administered I.M. or S.C. in divided doses. If necessary, Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection, USP can be diluted with sterile water for injection.
Postoperative Opioid Depression: Follow the recommendations and cautions under Adult Postoperative Depression. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression, naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.005 mg to 0.01 mg intravenously at two to three minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal.
Usage in Neonates:
Opioid-Induced Depression: The usual initial dose is 0.01 mg/kg body weight administered I.V., I.M., or S.C. This dose may be repeated in accordance with adult administration guidelines for postoperative opioid depression.
Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is undamaged. Discard unused portion.