DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Important Dosage and Administration Instructions
Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection should be administered as a supplement to general anesthesia only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids.
Naloxone, resuscitative and intubation equipment and oxygen should be readily available.
Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see WARNINGS].
Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection and adjust the dosage accordingly [see WARNINGS].
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
The usual recommended adult dose is 10 mg for a 70 kg individual administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously; this dose may be repeated every 3 to 6 hours as necessary. Dosage should be adjusted according to the severity of the pain, physical status of the patient, and other medications which the patient may be receiving [see WARNINGS; Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants]. In nontolerant individuals, the recommended single maximum dose is 20 mg with a maximum total daily dose of 160 mg.
The use of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection as a supplement to balanced anesthesia requires larger doses than those recommended for analgesia. Induction doses of nalbuphine hydrochloride range from 0.3 mg/kg to 3 mg/kg intravenously to be administered over a 10 to 15 minute period with maintenance doses of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg in single intravenous administrations as required. The use of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection may be followed by respiratory depression which can be reversed with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride.
Titration and Maintenance of Therapy
Individually titrate Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving nalbuphine hydrochloride to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see WARNINGS]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration.
If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the nalbuphine hydrochloride dosage. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse events.
Discontinuation of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection
When a patient who has been taking Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection regularly and may be physically dependent no longer requires therapy with Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection, taper the dose gradually, by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days, while monitoring carefully for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue Nalbuphine Hydrochloride Injection in a physically-dependent patient [see WARNINGS, DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE].