2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions
Morphine Sulfate Injection is for intravenous administration.
Morphine Sulfate Injection is available in four concentrations as NexJect™ syringes for intravenous administration. Dosing errors can result in accidental overdose and death. Avoid dosing errors that may result from confusion between mg and mL and confusion with morphine injections of different concentrations when prescribing, dispensing, and administering Morphine Sulfate Injection. Ensure that the dose is communicated and dispensed accurately.
Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24–72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with Morphine Sulfate Injection and adjust the dosage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Administration of Morphine Sulfate Injection should be limited to use by those familiar with the management of respiratory depression. Morphine must be injected slowly; rapid intravenous administration may result in chest wall rigidity.
Inspect Morphine Sulfate Injection for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
2.2 Initial Dosage
2.3 Titration and Maintenance of Therapy
Individually titrate Morphine Sulfate Injection to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving Morphine Sulfate Injection to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.
2.4 Discontinuation of Morphine Sulfate Injection
When a patient who has been taking Morphine Sulfate Injection regularly and may be physically dependent no longer requires therapy with Morphine Sulfate Injection, taper the dose gradually, by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days, while monitoring carefully for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue Morphine Sulfate Injection in a physically-dependent patient [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].