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morphine sulfate injection, USP VIAL Drug Interactions


Table 1 includes clinically significant drug interactions with preservative-free morphine sulfate injection.

Table 1 Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Preservative-Free Morphine Sulfate Injection
Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants
Clinical Impact:Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. The depressant effects of morphine are potentiated by the presence of other CNS depressants. Use of neuroleptics in conjunction with neuraxial morphine may increase the risk of respiratory depression.
Intervention:Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Examples:Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, physotropic drugs, antihistamines, neuroleptics, other opioids, alcohol.
Serotonergic Drugs
Clinical Impact:The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
Intervention:If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue preservative-free morphine sulfate injection if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Examples:Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that effect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e. cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Clinical Impact:MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Intervention:Do not use preservative-free morphine sulfate injection in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.
If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of other opioids (such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, or buprenorphine) to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
Examples:phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid.
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics
Clinical Impact:May reduce the analgesic effect of preservative-free morphine sulfate injection and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
Intervention:Avoid concomitant use.
Examples:Butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine.
Muscle Relaxants
Clinical Impact:Morphine may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.
Intervention:Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of preservative-free morphine sulfate injection and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.
Clinical Impact:Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.
Intervention:Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.
Anticholinergic Drugs
Clinical Impact:The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Intervention:Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when preservative-free morphine sulfate injection is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
Oral P2Y12 Inhibitors
Clinical Impact:The co-administration of oral P2Y12 inhibitors and intravenous morphine sulfate can decrease the absorption and peak concentration of oral P2Y12 inhibitors and delay the onset of the antiplatelet effect.
Intervention:Consider the use of parenteral antiplatelet agent in the setting of acute coronary syndrome requiring co-administration of intravenous morphine sulfate.
Examples:clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor
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