WARNING: RISKS WITH NEURAXIAL ADMINISTRATION; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; RISK OF ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
Risks with Neuraxial Administration
Single-dose neuraxial administration may result in acute or delayed respiratory depression up to 24 hours. Because of the risk of severe adverse reactions when preservative-free morphine sulfate injection is administered by the epidural or intrathecal route of administration, patients must be observed in a fully equipped and staffed environment for at least 24 hours after the initial dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of preservative-free morphine sulfate injection. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of preservative-free morphine sulfate injection or following a dose increase. Because of delay in maximum CNS effect with intravenously administered drug (30 min), rapid IV administration may result in overdosing [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Preservative-free morphine sulfate injection exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient's risk prior to prescribing preservative-free morphine sulfate injection, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of preservative-free morphine sulfate injection during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7)].
- Reserve concomitant prescribing of preservative-free morphine sulfate injection and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
- Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
- Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.