8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Available data from published observational studies have not demonstrated an association of adverse developmental outcomes with maternal use of metoprolol during pregnancy (see Data). Untreated hypertension and heart failure during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus (see Clinical Considerations). In animal reproduction studies, metoprolol has been shown to increase post-implantation loss and decrease neonatal survival in rats at oral dosages of 500 mg/kg/day, approximately 24 times the daily dose of 200 mg in a 60-kg patient on a mg/m2 basis.
All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage).
Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly. Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. There is a risk for preterm birth with pregnant women with chronic heart failure in 3rd trimester of pregnancy.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Metoprolol crosses the placenta. Neonates born to mothers who are receiving metoprolol during pregnancy, may be at risk for hypotension, hypoglycemia, bradycardia, and respiratory depression. Observe neonates for symptoms of hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia and respiratory depression and manage accordingly.
Data from published observational studies did not demonstrate an association of major congenital malformations and use of metoprolol in pregnancy. The published literature has reported inconsistent findings of intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth and perinatal mortality with maternal use of metoprolol during pregnancy; however, these studies have methodological limitations hindering interpretation. Methodological limitations include retrospective design, concomitant use of other medications, and other unadjusted confounders that may account for the study findings including the underlying disease in the mother. These observational studies cannot definitely establish or exclude any drug-associated risk during pregnancy.
Metoprolol has been shown to increase post-implantation loss and decrease neonatal survival in rats at oral dosages of 500 mg/kg/day, i.e. 24 times, on a mg/m2 basis, the daily dose of 200 mg in a 60-kg patient.
No fetal abnormalities were observed when pregnant rats received metoprolol orally up to a dose of 200 mg/kg/day, i.e. 10 times, the daily dose of 200 mg in a 60-kg patient.
Limited available data from published literature report that metoprolol is present in human milk. The estimated daily infant dose of metoprolol received from breastmilk range from 0.05 mg to less than 1 mg. The estimated relative infant dosage was 0.5% to 2% of the mother's weight-adjusted dosage (see Data). No adverse reactions of metoprolol on the breastfed infant have been identified. There is no information regarding the effects of metoprolol on milk production.
Monitoring for adverse reactions
For a lactating woman who is a slow metabolizer of metoprolol, monitor the breastfed infant for bradycardia and other symptoms of beta-blockade such as dry mouth, skin or eyes, diarrhea or constipation. In a report of 6 mothers taking metoprolol, none reported adverse effects in her breastfed infant.
Limited published cases estimate the infant daily dose of metoprolol received from breast milk range from 0.05 mg to less than 1 mg.
In 2 women who were taking unspecified amount of metoprolol, milk samples were taken after one dose of metoprolol. The estimated amount of metoprolol and alpha-hydroxymetoprolol in breast milk is reported to be less than 2% of the mother's weight-adjusted dosage.
In a small study, breast milk was collected every 2 to 3 hours over one dosage interval, in three mothers (at least 3 months postpartum ) who took metoprolol of unspecified amount. The average amount of metoprolol present in breast milk was 71.5 mcg/day (range 17.0 to 158.7). The average relative infant dosage was 0.5% of the mother's weight-adjusted dosage.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Based on the published literature, beta-blockers (including metoprolol) may cause erectile dysfunction and inhibit sperm motility. In animal fertility studies, metoprolol has been associated with reversible adverse effects on spermatogenesis starting at oral dose level of 3.5 mg/kg in rats, which would correspond to a dose of 34 mg/day in humans in mg/m2 equivalent, although other studies have shown no effect of metoprolol on reproductive performance in male rats.
No evidence of impaired fertility due to metoprolol was observed in rats [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
In worldwide clinical trials of metoprolol tartrate in myocardial infarction, where approximately 478 patients were over 65 years of age (0 over 75 years of age), no age-related differences in safety and effectiveness were found. Other reported clinical experience in myocardial infarction has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. However, greater sensitivity of some elderly individuals taking metoprolol tartrate cannot be categorically ruled out. Therefore, in general, it is recommended that dosing proceed with caution in this population.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
No studies have been performed with metoprolol in patients with hepatic impairment. Because metoprolol is metabolized by the liver, metoprolol blood levels are likely to increase substantially with poor hepatic function. Therefore, initiate therapy at doses lower than those recommended for a given indication.