Bupivacaine hydrochloride is 2-Piperidinecarboxamide, 1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, monohydrate, a white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in 95 percent ethanol, soluble in water, and slightly soluble in chloroform or acetone. It has the following structural formula:
Dextrose is D-glucopyranose monohydrate and has the following structural formula:
MARCAINE™ Spinal is available in sterile hyperbaric solution for subarachnoid injection (spinal block).
Bupivacaine hydrochloride is related chemically and pharmacologically to the aminoacyl local anesthetics. It is a homologue of mepivacaine and is chemically related to lidocaine. All three of these anesthetics contain an amide linkage between the aromatic nucleus and the amino or piperidine group. They differ in this respect from the procaine-type local anesthetics, which have an ester linkage.
Each mL of MARCAINE Spinal contains 7.5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride (anhydrous) and 82.5 mg dextrose (anhydrous). The pH of this solution is adjusted to between 4.0 and 6.5 with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid.
The specific gravity of MARCAINE Spinal is between 1.030 and 1.035 at 25°C and 1.03 at 37°C.
MARCAINE Spinal does not contain any preservatives.