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manganese Chloride Injection, USP Warnings and Precautions

WARNINGS

Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Manganese 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (pH 2.0) may cause considerable tissue irritation.

Liver and/or biliary tract dysfunction may require omission or reduction of copper and manganese doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the bile.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.


PRECAUTIONS

General

Do not use unless solution is clear and seal is intact.

Manganese 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.

Laboratory Tests

Serum manganese levels can be measured periodically at the discretion of the investigator. Because of the low serum concentration normally present, samples will usually be analyzed by a reference laboratory.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Manganese 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Manganese 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) additive is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

(See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.) Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Pregnancy

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with manganese chloride. It is also not known whether manganese chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Manganese chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly indicated.

Geriatric Use

An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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