9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
9.1 Controlled Substance
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection contains ketamine, a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substance Act.
Individuals with a history of drug abuse or dependence may be at greater risk for abuse and misuse of Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection. Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its psychological or physiological effects. Misuse is the intentional use, for therapeutic purposes, of a drug by an individual in a way other than prescribed by a health care provider or for whom it was not prescribed.
In a context of drug abuse, Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection may produce a variety of symptoms including anxiety, dysphoria, disorientation, insomnia, flashback, hallucinations, and feelings of floating, detachment and being "spaced out".
Recurrent high-dose ketamine misuse or abuse may be associated with memory and/or attention impairment.
Physical dependence has been reported with prolonged use of ketamine. Physical dependence is a state that develops as a result of physiological adaptation in response to repeated drug use, manifested by withdrawal signs and symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal symptoms have been reported after the discontinuation of frequently used (more than weekly), large doses of ketamine for long periods of time. Reported symptoms of withdrawal associated with daily intake of large doses of ketamine include craving, fatigue, poor appetite, and anxiety.
Tolerance has been reported with prolonged use of ketamine. Tolerance is a physiological state characterized by a reduced response to a drug after repeated administration (i.e., a higher dose of a drug is required to produce the same effect that was once obtained at a lower dose).