6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Hemodynamic Instability [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Emergence Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Pediatric Neurotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Drug-Induced Liver Injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of Ketamine Hydrochloride were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular disorders: Elevated blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac index; decreases in blood pressure and heart rate; arrhythmias; cardiac decompensation (in patients with suspected catecholamine depletion).
Eye disorders: Diplopia, nystagmus, elevation in intraocular pressure.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hepatobiliary dysfunction.
Administration site disorders: Local pain and exanthema at the injection site.
Immune system disorders: Anaphylaxis.
Neurologic disorders: Emergence reactions (post-operative delirium), [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. During administration, enhanced muscle tone and spasms (resembling a partial motor or generalized motor seizure).
Psychiatric disorders: Adverse psychiatric events have occurred and/or persisted days to weeks after ketamine exposure.
Renal and urinary disorders: In individuals with history of chronic ketamine use or abuse, lower urinary tract and bladder symptoms including dysuria, increased urinary frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, and hematuria have been reported [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. In addition, diagnostic studies performed to assess the cause of these symptoms have reported cystitis (including cystitis non-infective, cystitis interstitial, cystitis ulcerative, cystitis erosive and cystitis hemorrhagic) as well as hydronephrosis and reduced bladder capacity.
Respiratory disorders: Respiratory depression and apnea following rapid intravenous administration of high doses of ketamine hydrochloride; laryngospasm, and airway obstruction.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Transient erythema and/or morbilliform rash.