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INLYTA®Warnings and Precautions (axitinib)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypertension

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, hypertension was reported in 145/359 patients (40%) receiving INLYTA and 103/355 patients (29%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 hypertension was observed in 56/359 patients (16%) receiving INLYTA and 39/355 patients (11%) receiving sorafenib. Hypertensive crisis was reported in 2/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib. The median onset time for hypertension (systolic blood pressure >150 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg) was within the first month of the start of INLYTA treatment and blood pressure increases have been observed as early as 4 days after starting INLYTA. Hypertension was managed with standard anti-hypertensive therapy. Discontinuation of INLYTA treatment due to hypertension occurred in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Ensure that blood pressure is well-controlled prior to initiating INLYTA. Monitor patients for hypertension and treat as needed with standard anti-hypertensive therapy. Withhold and then dose reduce INLYTA or permanently discontinue based on severity of hypertension [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.2 Arterial Thromboembolic Events

In clinical trials, arterial thromboembolic events have been reported, including deaths. In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, Grade 3/4 arterial thromboembolic events were reported in 4/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 4/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Fatal cerebrovascular accident was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

INLYTA has not been studied in patients who had an arterial thromboembolic event within the previous 12 months. In clinical trials with INLYTA, arterial thromboembolic events (including transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, and retinal artery occlusion) were reported in 17/715 patients (2%), with two deaths secondary to cerebrovascular accident.

Permanently discontinue INLYTA if an arterial thromboembolic event occurs during treatment.

5.3 Venous Thromboembolic Events

In clinical trials, venous thromboembolic events have been reported, including deaths. In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, venous thromboembolic events were reported in 11/359 patients (3%) receiving INLYTA and 2/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 venous thromboembolic events were reported in 9/359 patients (3%) receiving INLYTA (including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, retinal vein occlusion and retinal vein thrombosis) and 2/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Fatal pulmonary embolism was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib.

INLYTA has not been studied in patients who had a venous thromboembolic event within the previous 6 months. In clinical trials with INLYTA, venous thromboembolic events were reported in 22/715 patients (3%), with two deaths secondary to pulmonary embolism.

Monitor for signs and symptoms of VTE and PE. Withhold INLYTA and then resume at same dose or permanently discontinue based on severity of VTE.

5.4 Hemorrhage

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, hemorrhagic events were reported in 58/359 patients (16%) receiving INLYTA and 64/355 patients (18%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 hemorrhagic events were reported in 5/359 (1%) patients receiving INLYTA (including cerebral hemorrhage, hematuria, hemoptysis, lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and melena) and 11/355 (3%) patients receiving sorafenib. Fatal hemorrhage was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA (gastric hemorrhage) and 3/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib.

INLYTA has not been studied in patients who have evidence of untreated brain metastasis or recent active gastrointestinal bleeding and should not be used in those patients. Withhold and then dose reduce INLYTA or discontinue based on severity and persistence of hemorrhage.

5.5 Cardiac Failure

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, cardiac failure was reported in 6/359 patients (2%) receiving INLYTA and 3/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 cardiac failure was observed in 2/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 1/355 patients (<1%) receiving sorafenib. Fatal cardiac failure was reported in 2/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 1/355 patients (<1%) receiving sorafenib. Monitor for signs or symptoms of cardiac failure throughout treatment with INLYTA. Management of cardiac failure may require dose reduction, dose interruption or permanent discontinuation of INLYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.6 Gastrointestinal Perforation and Fistula Formation

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, gastrointestinal perforation was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib. In clinical trials with INLYTA, gastrointestinal perforation was reported in 5/715 patients (1%), including one death. In addition to cases of gastrointestinal perforation, fistulas were reported in 4/715 patients (1%).

Monitor for symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or fistula periodically throughout treatment with INLYTA.

5.7 Thyroid Dysfunction

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, hypothyroidism was reported in 69/359 patients (19%) receiving INLYTA and 29/355 patients (8%) receiving sorafenib. Hyperthyroidism was reported in 4/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 4/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. In patients who had thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) <5 μU/mL before treatment, elevations of TSH to ≥10 μU/mL occurred in 79/245 patients (32%) receiving INLYTA and 25/232 patients (11%) receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Monitor thyroid function before initiation of, and periodically throughout, treatment with INLYTA. Treat hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to standard medical practice to maintain euthyroid state.

5.8 Impaired Wound Healing

Impaired wound healing can occur in patients who receive drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. Therefore, INLYTA has the potential to adversely affect wound healing.

Withhold INLYTA for at least 2 days prior to elective surgery. Do not administer for at least 2 weeks following major surgery and until adequate wound healing. Resume INLYTA at a reduced dose or discontinue based on severity and persistence of the impaired wound healing. The safety of resumption of INLYTA after resolution of wound healing complications has not been established [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.9 Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. There were two additional reports of RPLS in other clinical trials with INLYTA.

RPLS is a neurological disorder which can present with headache, seizure, lethargy, confusion, blindness and other visual and neurologic disturbances. Mild to severe hypertension may be present. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of RPLS. Permanently discontinue INLYTA in patients developing RPLS. The safety of reinitiating INLYTA therapy in patients previously experiencing RPLS is not known [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.10 Proteinuria

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, proteinuria was reported in 39/359 patients (11%) receiving INLYTA and 26/355 patients (7%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3 proteinuria was reported in 11/359 patients (3%) receiving INLYTA and 6/355 patients (2%) receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Monitoring for proteinuria before initiation of, and periodically throughout, treatment with INLYTA is recommended. For patients who develop moderate to severe proteinuria, withhold and then dose reduce INLYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.11 Hepatotoxicity

INLYTA as a Single Agent

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations of all grades occurred in 22% of patients on both arms, with Grade 3/4 events in <1% of patients on the INLYTA arm. When used as a single agent, monitor ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment with INLYTA.

INLYTA in Combination with Avelumab or with Pembrolizumab

INLYTA in combination with avelumab or with pembrolizumab can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 ALT and AST elevations. Monitor liver enzymes before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are administered as single agents. For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt or permanently discontinue INLYTA and avelumab or pembrolizumab, and administer corticosteroids as needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

With the combination of INLYTA and avelumab, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT and increased AST were reported in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively. In patients with ALT ≥3 times ULN (Grades 2–4, n=82), ALT resolved to Grades 0–1 in 92%. Among the 73 patients who were rechallenged with either avelumab (n=3) or axitinib (n=25) administered as a single agent or with both (n=45), recurrence of ALT ≥3 times ULN was observed in no patient receiving avelumab, 6 patients receiving INLYTA, and 15 patients receiving both avelumab and INLYTA. Twenty-two (88%) patients with a recurrence of ALT ≥3 ULN subsequently recovered to Grade 0–1 from the event. Immune-mediated hepatitis was reported in 7% of patients including 4.9% with Grade 3 or 4 immune-mediated hepatitis. Hepatotoxicity led to permanent discontinuation in 7% and immune-mediated hepatitis led to permanent discontinuation of either avelumab or INLYTA in 5% of patients. Thirty-four patients were treated with corticosteroids and one patient was treated with a non-steroidal immunosuppressant. Resolution of hepatitis occurred in 31 of the 35 patients at the time of data cut-off.

With the combination of INLYTA and pembrolizumab, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT (20%) and increased AST (13%) were seen. Fifty-nine percent of the patients with increased ALT received systemic corticosteroids. In patients with ALT ≥3 times ULN (Grades 2–4, n=116), ALT resolved to Grades 0–1 in 94%. Among the 92 patients who were rechallenged with either pembrolizumab (n=3) or INLYTA (n=34) administered as a single agent or with both (n=55), recurrence of ALT ≥3 times ULN was observed in 1 patient receiving pembrolizumab, 16 patients receiving INLYTA, and 24 patients receiving both pembrolizumab and INLYTA. All patients with a recurrence of ALT ≥3 ULN subsequently recovered from the event.

5.12 Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

The systemic exposure to axitinib was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. A dose decrease is recommended when administering INLYTA to patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B). INLYTA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.13 Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE)

INLYTA in combination with avelumab can cause severe and fatal cardiovascular events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Permanently discontinue INLYTA and avelumab for Grade 3–4 cardiovascular events.

MACE occurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with INLYTA in combination with avelumab compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib in a randomized trial, JAVELIN Renal 101. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3–4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3–4 congestive heart failure (1.8%). Median time to onset of MACE was 4.2 months (range: 2 days to 24.5 months).

5.14 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on its mechanism of action and findings from animal studies, INLYTA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available human data to inform the drug-associated risk. In developmental toxicity studies in mice, axitinib was teratogenic, embryotoxic and fetotoxic at maternal exposures that were lower than human exposures at the recommended clinical dose. Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception during treatment with INLYTA and for 1 week after the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INLYTA and for 1 week after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)].

When INLYTA is used in combination with avelumab or pembrolizumab, refer to the full prescribing information of avelumab or pembrolizumab for pregnancy and contraception information.

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