8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Available data from published literature on the use of infliximab products during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with infliximab products and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Infliximab products cross the placenta and infants exposed in utero should not be administered live vaccines for at least 6 months after birth (see Clinical Considerations). No evidence of maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed in a developmental toxicity study conducted in mice using an analogous antibody that selectively inhibits the functional activity of mouse TNFα (see Data).
All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Infliximab products cross the placenta, and have been detected in the serum of infants up to 6 months following birth. Consequently, these infants may be at increased risk of infection, including disseminated infection which can become fatal. At least a six-month waiting period following birth is recommended before the administration of live vaccines (e.g., BCG vaccine or other live vaccines, such as the rotavirus vaccine) to these infants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]. Cases of agranulocytosis in infants exposed in utero have also been reported [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Because infliximab products do not cross-react with TNFα in species other than humans and chimpanzees, animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with infliximab products. No evidence of maternal toxicity or embryotoxicity was observed in a developmental toxicity study conducted in mice using an analogous antibody that selectively inhibits the functional activity of mouse TNFα. Doses of 10 to 15 mg/kg in pharmacodynamic animal models with the anti-TNF analogous antibody produced maximal pharmacologic effectiveness. Doses up to 40 mg/kg were shown to produce no adverse effects in animal reproduction studies.
Available information is insufficient to assess the amount of infliximab products present in human milk, and the effects on breastfed infants. There are no data on the effects of infliximab products on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for an infliximab product and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from infliximab products or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of infliximab products have been established in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age for induction and maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. However, infliximab products have not been studied in children with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis <6 years of age.
Pediatric Crohn's Disease
INFLECTRA is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in pediatric patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5), Indications and Usage (1.2), Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Studies (14.2), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Infliximab has been studied only in combination with conventional immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease. The longer term (greater than 1 year) safety and effectiveness of infliximab products in pediatric Crohn's disease patients have not been established in clinical trials.
Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis
The safety and effectiveness of infliximab products for reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in pediatric patients aged 6 years and older with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy are supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of infliximab in adults. Additional safety and pharmacokinetic data were collected in 60 pediatric patients aged 6 years and older [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Dosage and Administration (2.4), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Studies (14.4)]. The effectiveness of infliximab in inducing and maintaining mucosal healing could not be established. Although 41 patients had a Mayo endoscopy subscore of 0 or 1 at the Week 8 endoscopy, the induction phase was open-label and lacked a control group. Only 9 patients had an optional endoscopy at Week 54.
In the pediatric UC trial, approximately half of the patients were on concomitant immunomodulators (AZA, 6-MP, MTX) at study start. Due to the risk of HSTCL, a careful risk-benefit assessment should be made when INFLECTRA is used in combination with other immunosuppressants.
The longer term (greater than 1 year) safety and effectiveness of infliximab-products in pediatric ulcerative colitis patients have not been established in clinical trials.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
The safety and efficacy of infliximab in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study for 14 weeks, followed by a double-blind, all-active treatment extension, for a maximum of 44 weeks. Patients with active JRA between the ages of 4 and 17 years who had been treated with MTX for at least 3 months were enrolled. Concurrent use of folic acid, oral corticosteroids (≤0.2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent), NSAIDs, and/or disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) was permitted.
Doses of 3 mg/kg of infliximab or placebo were administered intravenously at Weeks 0, 2 and 6. Patients randomized to placebo crossed-over to receive 6 mg/kg of infliximab at Weeks 14, 16, and 20, and then every 8 weeks through Week 44. Patients who completed the study continued to receive open-label treatment with infliximab for up to 2 years in a companion extension study.
The study failed to establish the efficacy of infliximab in the treatment of JRA. Key observations in the study included a high placebo response rate and a higher rate of immunogenicity than what has been observed in adults. Additionally, a higher rate of clearance of infliximab was observed than had been observed in adults [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
A total of 60 patients with JRA were treated with doses of 3 mg/kg and 57 patients were treated with doses of 6 mg/kg. The proportion of patients with infusion reactions who received 3 mg/kg infliximab was 35% (21/60) over 52 weeks compared with 18% (10/57) in patients who received 6 mg/kg over 38 weeks. The most common infusion reactions reported were vomiting, fever, headache, and hypotension. In the 3 mg/kg infliximab group, 4 patients had a serious infusion reaction and 3 patients reported a possible anaphylactic reaction (2 of which were among the serious infusion reactions). In the 6 mg/kg infliximab group, 2 patients had a serious infusion reaction, 1 of whom had a possible anaphylactic reaction. Two of the 6 patients who experienced serious infusion reactions received infliximab by rapid infusion (duration of less than 2 hours). Antibodies to infliximab developed in 38% (20/53) of patients who received 3 mg/kg infliximab compared with 12% (6/49) of patients who received 6 mg/kg.
A total of 68% (41/60) of patients who received 3 mg/kg of infliximab in combination with MTX experienced an infection over 52 weeks compared with 65% (37/57) of patients who received 6 mg/kg of infliximab in combination with MTX over 38 weeks. The most commonly reported infections were upper respiratory tract infection and pharyngitis, and the most commonly reported serious infection was pneumonia. Other notable infections included primary varicella infection in 1 patient and herpes zoster in 1 patient.
8.5 Geriatric Use
In rheumatoid arthritis and plaque psoriasis clinical trials, no overall differences were observed in effectiveness or safety in 181 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 75 patients with plaque psoriasis, aged 65 or older who received infliximab, compared to younger patients – although the incidence of serious adverse reactions in patients aged 65 or older was higher in both infliximab and control groups compared to younger patients. In Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis studies, there were insufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from patients aged 18 to 65. There is a greater incidence of infections in the elderly population in general. The incidence of serious infections in patients 65 years and older treated with infliximab was greater than in those under 65 years of age; therefore caution should be used in treating the elderly [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].