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HETASTARCH Warnings and Precautions (6% hetastarch in 0.9% sodium chloride injection)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Mortality and Renal Dysfunction

  • Critically ill patients, including patients with sepsis, are at increased risk of mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI), including need for renal replacement therapy (RRT)
  • Surgery patients are at increased risk of mortality and AKI
  • Blunt trauma patients are at risk of mortality and AKI
  • Avoid use in patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction
  • Discontinue use of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection at the first sign of renal injury
  • Continue to monitor renal function for at least 90 days as use of RRT has been reported up to 90 days after administration of HES products, including 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection

5.2 Coagulopathy

  • 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is not recommended for use as a cardiac bypass pump prime, while the patient is on cardiopulmonary bypass, or in the immediate period after the pump has been discontinued because of the risk of increasing coagulation abnormalities and bleeding in patients whose coagulation status is already impaired. Monitor the coagulation status of surgery patients, as excess bleeding has been reported with HES solutions in this population. Discontinue use of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection at first sign of coagulopathy1–2

6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection has not been adequately evaluated to establish its safety in uses over extended periods other than leukapheresis. 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection has been associated with coagulation abnormalities in conjunction with an acquired, reversible von Willebrand's-like syndrome and/or Factor VIII deficiency when used over a period of days. Replacement therapy should be considered if a severe Factor VIII deficiency is identified. If a coagulopathy develops, it may take several days to resolve. Certain conditions may affect the safe use of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection on a chronic basis. For example, in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage where 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is used repeatedly over a period of days for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm, significant clinical bleeding may occur. Intracranial bleeding resulting in death has been reported.3

Slight declines in platelet counts and hemoglobin levels have been observed in donors undergoing repeated leukapheresis procedures using 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection due to the volume expanding effects of hetastarch and to the collection of platelets and erythrocytes. Hemoglobin levels usually return to normal within 24 hours. Hemodilution by 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection may also result in 24 hour declines of total protein, albumin, calcium, and fibrinogen levels. Regular and frequent clinical evaluation and complete blood counts (CBC) are necessary for proper monitoring of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection use during leukapheresis. If the frequency of leukapheresis is to exceed the guidelines for whole blood donation, you may wish to consider the following additional tests: total leukocyte and platelet counts, leukocyte differential count, hemoglobin and hematocrit, prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT).

5.3 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Life threatening anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions including death have been rarely reported with 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. Patients may develop hypersensitivity reaction to corn starch from which this product is made. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, administration of the drug should be discontinued immediately and the appropriate treatment and supportive measures should be undertaken until symptoms have resolved.

5.4 Circulatory Overload

6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection has not been adequately evaluated to establish its safety in situations other than treatment of hypovolemia in elective surgery.

Large volumes of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection may transiently alter the coagulation mechanism due to hemodilution and a direct inhibitory action on Factor VIII. Administration of volumes of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection that are greater than 25% of the blood volume in less than 24 hours may cause significant hemodilution reflected by lower hematocrit and plasma protein values. Administration of packed red cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma should be considered if clinically indicated.

When using 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection for plasma volume expansion, caution should be taken to avoid excessive hemodilution and circulatory overload especially in those patients at risk for developing congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema. 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is primarily excreted via the kidneys so caution should be exercised in patients who have impaired renal function. Although the risk of circulatory overload is largely dependent on the clinical circumstances, use of doses higher than 20 mL/kg/24h will increase the risk significantly. Increased risk of coagulation abnormalities and bleeding is also associated with higher doses. Monitor patients' vital signs and hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time.

5.5 Liver Function Test

Monitor liver function in patients receiving HES products, including 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection

5.6 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Bilirubin Levels

Indirect bilirubin levels of 8.3 mg/L (normal 0.0-7.0 mg/L) have been reported in 2 out of 20 normal subjects who received multiple infusions of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. Total bilirubin was within normal limits at all times; indirect bilirubin returned to normal by 96 hours following the final infusion. The significance, if any, of these elevations is not known; however, caution should be observed before administering 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection to patients with a history of liver disease.

Serum Amylase Levels

Elevated serum amylase levels may be observed temporarily following administration of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection although no association with pancreatitis has been demonstrated. Serum amylase levels cannot be used to assess or to evaluate for pancreatitis for 3-5 days after administration of 6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. Elevated serum amylase levels persist for longer periods of time in patients with renal impairment. Hetastarch has not been shown to increase serum lipase.

Hemodialysis

6% Hetastarch in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is not eliminated by hemodialysis. The utility of other extracorporeal elimination techniques has not been evaluated.

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