8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to psychiatric medications, including Halcion, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychiatric Medications at 1-866-961-2388 or visiting online at https://womensmentalhealth.org/pregnancyregistry/
Neonates born to mothers using benzodiazepines late in pregnancy have been reported to experience symptoms of sedation and/or neonatal withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and ]. Available data from published observational studies of pregnant women exposed to benzodiazepines do not report a clear association with benzodiazepines and major birth defects (see ).
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Benzodiazepines cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression, hypotonia, and sedation in neonates. Monitor neonates exposed to Halcion during pregnancy or labor for signs of sedation, respiratory depression, hypotonia, and feeding problems. Monitor neonates exposed to HALCION during pregnancy for signs of withdrawal. Manage these neonates accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Published data from observational studies on the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy do not report a clear association with benzodiazepines and major birth defects. Although early studies reported an increased risk of congenital malformations with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, there was no consistent pattern noted. In addition, the majority of more recent case-control and cohort studies of benzodiazepine use during pregnancy, which were adjusted for confounding exposures to alcohol, tobacco and other medications, have not confirmed these findings.
Oral administration of triazolam to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis caused skeletal developmental changes (variations and malformations) at maternally toxic doses in rats and at doses in rats and rabbits which are approximately equal to or greater than 200 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 0.5 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area. Oral administration of triazolam to male and female rats before mating, and continuing during gestation and lactation did not result in embryotoxicity at doses up to approximately 100 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area, but did cause an increase in the number of stillbirths and postnatal pup mortalities at doses greater than or equal to approximately 40 times the MRHD based mg/m2 body surface area. 14C-triazolam was administered orally to pregnant mice. Drug-related material appeared uniformly distributed in the fetus with 14C concentrations approximately the same as in the brain of the mother.
There are reports of sedation, poor feeding and poor weight gain in infants exposed to benzodiazepines through breast milk. There are no data on the presence of triazolam in human milk or the effects on milk production. Triazolam and its metabolites are present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data). When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for HALCION and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from HALCION or from the underlying maternal condition.
Infants exposed to HALCION through breast milk should be monitored for sedation, poor feeding and poor weight gain. A lactating woman may consider interrupting breastfeeding and pumping and discarding breast milk during treatment and for 28 hours (approximately 5 elimination half-lives) after HALCION administration in order to minimize drug exposure to a breast fed infant.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of Halcion have not been established in pediatric patients.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Elderly patients exhibit higher plasma triazolam concentrations due to reduced clearance as compared with younger subjects at the same dose. Because elderly patients are especially susceptible to dose related adverse reactions and to minimize oversedation, the smallest effective dose should be used [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].