6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:
- Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Interactions with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Severe Cardiovascular Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
- Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of fentanyl were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
As with other opioid agonists, the most common serious adverse reactions reported to occur with fentanyl are respiratory depression, apnea, rigidity, and bradycardia; if these remain untreated, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression or cardiac arrest could occur. Other adverse reactions that have been reported are hypertension, hypotension, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea, emesis, diaphoresis, pruritus, urticarial, laryngospasm, and anaphylaxis.
It has been reported that secondary rebound respiratory depression may occasionally occur postoperatively.
When a tranquilizer is used with fentanyl, the following adverse reactions can occur: chills and/or shivering, restlessness, and postoperative hallucinatory episodes (sometimes associated with transient periods of mental depression); extrapyramidal symptoms (dystonia, akathisia, and oculogyric crisis) have been observed up to 24 hours postoperatively. When they occur, extrapyramidal symptoms can usually be controlled with anti-parkinson agents. Postoperative drowsiness is also frequently reported following the use of neuroleptics with Fentanyl Citrate Injection.
Cases of cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and death have been reported following the use of Fentanyl Citrate Injection with a neuroleptic agent.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Fentanyl Citrate Injection.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].