8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Based on findings in animal studies and its mechanism of action, EXEMESTANE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Limited human data from case reports are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, administration of exemestane to pregnant rats and rabbits caused increased incidence of abortions, embryo-fetal toxicity, and prolonged gestation with abnormal or difficult labor (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
In animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits, exemestane caused embryo-fetal toxicity, and was abortifacient. Radioactivity related to 14C-exemestane crossed the placenta of rats following oral administration of 1 mg/kg exemestane. The concentration of exemestane and its metabolites was approximately equivalent in maternal and fetal blood. When rats were administered exemestane from 14 days prior to mating until either days 15 or 20 of gestation, and resuming for the 21 days of lactation, an increase in placental weight was seen at 4 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.5 times the recommended human daily dose on a mg/m2 basis). Increased resorptions, reduced number of live fetuses, decreased fetal weight, retarded ossification, prolonged gestation and abnormal or difficult labor was observed at doses equal to or greater than 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 7.5 times the recommended human daily dose on a mg/m2 basis). Daily doses of exemestane, given to rabbits during organogenesis, caused a decrease in placental weight at 90 mg/kg/day (approximately 70 times the recommended human daily dose on a mg/m2 basis) and in the presence of maternal toxicity, abortions, an increase in resorptions, and a reduction in fetal body weight were seen at 270 mg/kg/day. No malformations were noted when exemestane was administered to pregnant rats or rabbits during the organogenesis period at doses up to 810 and 270 mg/kg/day, respectively (approximately 320 and 210 times the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively).
There is no information on the presence of exemestane in human milk, or on its effects on the breastfed infant or milk production. Exemestane is present in rat milk at concentrations similar to maternal plasma (see Data). Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-fed infants from EXEMESTANE, advise a woman not to breastfeed during treatment with EXEMESTANE and for 1 month after the final dose.
Radioactivity related to exemestane appeared in rat milk within 15 minutes of oral administration of radiolabeled exemestane. Concentrations of exemestane and its metabolites were approximately equivalent in the milk and plasma of rats for 24 hours after a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg 14C-exemestane.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Pregnancy testing is recommended for females of reproductive potential within seven days prior to initiating EXEMESTANE.
EXEMESTANE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with EXEMESTANE and for 1 month after the final dose.
Based on findings in animals, male and female fertility may be impaired by treatment with EXEMESTANE [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
The AUC of exemestane was increased in subjects with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Childs-Pugh B or C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. However, based on experience with exemestane at repeated doses up to 200 mg daily that demonstrated a moderate increase in non life-threatening adverse reactions, dosage adjustment does not appear to be necessary.
8.7 Renal Impairment
The AUC of exemestane was increased in subjects with moderate or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <35 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. However, based on experience with exemestane at repeated doses up to 200 mg daily that demonstrated a moderate increase in non life-threatening adverse reactions, dosage adjustment does not appear to be necessary.