12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Crisaborole is a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitor. PDE-4 inhibition results in increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. The specific mechanism(s) by which crisaborole exerts its therapeutic action for the treatment of atopic dermatitis is not well defined.
The PK of EUCRISA were investigated in 33 pediatric subjects 2 to 17 years of age with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis and a mean ± SD body surface area (BSA) involvement of 49 ± 20% (range 27% to 92%). In this study, subjects applied approximately 3 mg/cm2 of EUCRISA ointment (dose range was approximately 6 g to 30 g per application) twice daily for 8 days.
Plasma concentrations were quantifiable in all the subjects. The mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration time curve from 0 to 12 hours post dose (AUC0–12) for crisaborole on Day 8 were 127 ± 196 ng/mL and 949 ± 1240 ng h/mL, respectively. Systemic concentrations of crisaborole were at steady state by Day 8. Based on the ratios of AUC0–12 between Day 8 and Day 1, the mean accumulation factor for crisaborole was 1.9.
The PK of EUCRISA were investigated in 13 subjects 4 months to less than 24 months of age. The mean ± SD Cmax and AUC0–12 for crisaborole were 188 ± 100 ng/mL and 1164 ± 550 ng∙h/mL, respectively.
Crisaborole is substantially metabolized into inactive metabolites. The major metabolite 5-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxyl benzylalcohol (metabolite 1), is formed via hydrolysis; this metabolite is further metabolized into downstream metabolites, among which 5-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxyl benzoic acid (metabolite 2), formed via oxidation, is also a major metabolite.
PK of metabolites 1 and 2 were assessed in the PK study described above and the systemic concentrations were at or near steady state by Day 8. Based on the ratios of AUC0–12 between Day 8 and Day 1, the mean accumulation factors for metabolites 1 and 2 were 1.7 and 6.3, respectively.
Drug Interaction Studies
In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicated that under the conditions of clinical use, crisaborole and metabolite 1 are not expected to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4.
In vitro human liver microsomes studies for metabolite 2 showed that it did not inhibit activities of CYP2C19, 2D6, and 3A4; was a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2 and 2B6; and a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C8 and 2C9. The most sensitive enzyme, CYP2C9, was further investigated in a clinical trial using warfarin as a CYP2C9 substrate. The results of this study showed no drug interaction potential.
In vitro studies in human hepatocytes showed that under the conditions of clinical use, crisaborole and metabolites 1 and 2 are not expected to induce CYP enzymes.
In vitro studies showed that crisaborole and metabolite 1 did not inhibit the activities of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, 2B7, and 2B15. Metabolite 2 did not inhibit UGT1A4, 1A6, 2B7, and 2B15. Metabolite 2 showed weak inhibition of UGT1A1, however, no clinically significant drug interactions are expected between crisaborole (and its metabolites) and UGT1A1 substrates at therapeutic concentrations. Metabolite 2 showed moderate inhibition of UGT1A9 and may result in a moderate increase of the concentrations of sensitive UGT1A9 substrates.
In vitro studies indicate that under the condition of clinical use, crisaborole and metabolites 1 and 2 are not expected to cause clinically significant interactions with substrates of P-glycoprotein and organic anionic or cationic transporters. Crisaborole and metabolite 1 are not expected to inhibit breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); metabolite 2 is expected to inhibit BCRP at therapeutic concentrations.