2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 General Considerations
Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if the solution is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter. Discard all unused drug.
2.2 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock
Dilute 10 mL (1 mg) of epinephrine from the syringe in 1,000 mL of 5 percent dextrose solution or 5 percent dextrose and sodium chloride solution to produce a 1 mcg per mL dilution. The diluted solutions can be stored for up to 4 hours at room temperature or 24 hours under refrigerated conditions.
Administration in saline solution alone is not recommended. If indicated, administer whole blood or plasma separately.
Whenever possible, give infusions of epinephrine into a large vein. Avoid using a catheter tie-in technique, because the obstruction to blood flow around the tubing may cause stasis and increased local concentration of the drug. Avoid the veins of the leg in elderly patients or in those suffering from occlusive vascular diseases.
To provide hemodynamic support in septic shock associated hypotension in adult patients, the suggested dosing infusion rate of intravenously administered epinephrine is 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 2 mcg/kg/min, and is titrated to achieve a desired mean arterial pressure (MAP). The dosage may be adjusted periodically, such as every 10 – 15 minutes, in increments of 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 0.2 mcg/kg/min, to achieve the desired blood pressure goal.
After hemodynamic stabilization, wean incrementally over time, such as by decreasing doses of epinephrine every 30 minutes over a 12- to 24-hour period.