Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/10 mL (0.1 mg/mL) is supplied as a sterile aqueous solution with a pH range of 2.3–3.5, that is clear, colorless, and nonpyrogenic. Each milliliter contains 0.1 mg epinephrine, 8.16 mg sodium chloride, 0.46 mg sodium metabisulfite, and 2.13 mg citric acid, anhydrous and 0.41 mg sodium citrate, dihydrate added as buffers. Additional citric acid and/or sodium citrate may be added for pH adjustment. The solution contains no preservatives.
This sterile solution is to be administered after dilution by the intravenous route. Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine (adrenergic agent) designated chemically as 4-[1-hydroxy-2 (methylamino) ethyl]-1,2 benzenediol, a white, crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula:
The molecular weight of epinephrine is 183.2.
Epinephrine solution deteriorates rapidly on exposure to air or light, turning pink from oxidation to adrenochrome and brown from the formation of melanin.