The following adverse reaction rates are based on the use of diltiazem hydrochloride injection in over 400 domestic clinical trial patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter or PSVT under double-blind or open-label conditions. Worldwide experience in over 1,300 patients was similar.
Adverse events reported in controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials were generally mild and transient. Hypotension was the most commonly reported adverse event during clinical trials. Asymptomatic hypotension occurred in 4.3% of patients. Symptomatic hypotension occurred in 3.2% of patients. When treatment for hypotension was required, it generally consisted of administration of saline or placing the patient in the Trendelenburg position. Other events reported in at least 1% of the diltiazem-treated patients were injection site reactions (e.g., itching, burning) - 3.9%, vasodilation (flushing) - 1.7%, and arrhythmia (junctional rhythm or isorhythmic dissociation) - 1%.
In addition, the following events were reported infrequently (less than 1%):
Cardiovascular: Asystole, atrial flutter, AV block first degree, AV block second degree, bradycardia, chest pain, congestive heart failure, sinus pause, sinus node dysfunction, syncope, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia
Dermatologic: Pruritus, sweating
Gastrointestinal: Constipation, elevated SGOT or alkaline phosphatase, nausea, vomiting
Nervous System: Dizziness, paresthesia
Other: Amblyopia, asthenia, dry mouth, dyspnea, edema, headache, hyperuricemia
Although not observed in clinical trials with diltiazem hydrochloride injection, the following events associated with oral diltiazem may occur:
Cardiovascular: AV block (third degree), bundle branch block, ECG abnormality, palpitations, syncope, tachycardia, ventricular extrasystoles
Dermatologic: Alopecia, erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), exfoliative dermatitis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, petechiae, photosensitivity, purpura, rash, urticaria
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, diarrhea, dysgeusia, dyspepsia, mild elevations of SGPT and LDH, thirst, weight increase
Nervous System: Abnormal dreams, amnesia, depression, extrapyramidal symptoms, gait abnormality, hallucinations, insomnia, nervousness, personality change, somnolence, tremor
Other: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, allergic reactions, angioedema (including facial or periorbital edema), CPK elevation, epistaxis, eye irritation, gingival hyperplasia, hemolytic anemia, hyperglycemia, impotence, increased bleeding time, leukopenia, muscle cramps, myopathy, nasal congestion, nocturia, osteoarticular pain, photosensitivity (including lichenoid keratosis and hyperpigmentation at sun-exposed skin areas), polyuria, retinopathy, sexual difficulties, thrombocytopenia, tinnitus.
Events such as myocardial infarction have been observed which are not readily distinguishable from the natural history of the disease for the patient.