When administered intravenously, this solution restores blood glucose levels in hypoglycemia and provides a source of carbohydrate calories. Carbohydrate in the form of dextrose may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. Dextrose injection undergoes oxidation to carbon dioxide and water.
25% Dextrose Injection, USP provides a concentrated solution sufficiently nonirritating for slow intravenous injection to infants for terminating acute symptomatic episodes of hypoglycemia in the neonate and in older infants (fasting blood glucose below 40 mg/100 mL). Values as low as 20 mg/100 mL are not uncommon in normal asymptomatic infants the first few days of life (longer in premature infants).
Symptoms of hypoglycemia in the newborn and small infants may be difficult to evaluate and convulsions often are the first or only recognized manifestation of depressed blood glucose levels. Because of widely varied etiology, the precise cause may be difficult to establish. Hypoglycemia (deficient blood glucose) due to organic or functional hyperinsulinism, may be only temporarily abated by administration of dextrose (glucose) and may rebound to hypoglycemia levels as release of additional insulin is evoked. In addition to various other causes, an idiopathic form of hypoglycemia in infancy has been described, as well as occasional transitory hypoglycemia in the neonatal period which disappears in later infancy. Fetal hyperinsulinism in response to maternal hyperglycemia of diabetic mothers has been observed. Occasionally convulsions associated with severe hypoglycemia are observed in infants of diabetic mothers.
Since glucose is the only sugar utilized for metabolic requirements of human neural tissue, it is essential to restore deficient blood glucose levels from any cause in order to prevent or correct central nervous system dysfunction.