8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no available data on Deferoxamine mesylate use in pregnant women to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriages or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.
In animal reproduction studies subcutaneous administration of deferoxamine to pregnant animals (mice or rabbits) during organogenesis at doses approximately ≥0.2- (mice) and ≥0.7 (rabbits) times the maximum recommended human dose resulted in maternal toxicity and adverse developmental outcomes (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Consider the benefits and risks of Deferoxamine mesylate for the mother and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing Deferoxamine mesylate to a pregnant woman.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
In an embryo-fetal developmental study in mice, pregnant animals administered subcutaneous doses of deferoxamine at 180, and 540 mg/kg/day from gestation day 7 to gestation day 12 resulted in a dose dependent delay and irregularities of fetal skeletal maturation at doses ≥0.2 times the MRHD. At the highest dose of 540 mg/kg, in 1/23 fetuses had a unilateral lesion to the eye lens (approximately 0.5 times the MRHD).
In the embryo-fetal developmental studies in rabbits, pregnant animals administered subcutaneous doses of deferoxamine either 200 mg/kg or 200, 300, and 540 mg/kg from gestation day 6 to gestation day 14 resulted in maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal developmental effects at 0.7 times the MRHD. Maternal toxicity included reduced fetal body weights and embryo-fetal effects included malformations of spina bifida, and increased incidence of abnormally ossified ribs and vertebrae.
No maternal toxicity or embryo-fetal effects were observed in rats at deferoxamine doses tested (up to 0.9 times the MRHD).
There are no data on the presence of deferoxamine or its metabolite in either human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. It is not known whether deferoxamine is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed child, advise patients not to breastfeed during treatment with Deferoxamine mesylate, and for one week after the last dose.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Based on animal data, Deferoxamine mesylate can cause malformations at doses less than the human dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Deferoxamine mesylate can cause embryo-fetal harm when administered to pregnant women [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Deferoxamine mesylate and for one month after the last dose.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients 3 years of age and older have been established for the treatment of acute iron intoxication and for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in patients with chronic anemia. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under the age of 3 years have not been established.
Iron mobilization with Deferoxamine mesylate is relatively poor in patients under the age of 3 years with relatively little iron overload. Deferoxamine mesylate is not recommended for use. The drug should ordinarily not be given to these patients unless significant iron mobilization (e.g., 1 mg or more of iron per day) can be demonstrated.
High doses of Deferoxamine mesylate and concomitant low ferritin levels have been associated with growth suppression in pediatric patients. Monitor weight and height in pediatric patients receiving Deferoxamine mesylate every 3 months [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical Studies of deferoxamine mesylate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from the younger subjects. Postmarketing reports suggest a possible trend for an increased risk of eye disorders in the geriatric population, specifically the occurrence of color blindness, maculopathy, and scotoma. However, it is unclear if these eye disorders were dose related. Although the number of reports was very small, certain elderly patients may be predisposed to eye disorders when taking deferoxamine mesylate. Postmarketing reports also suggest that there may be an increased risk of deafness and hearing loss in the geriatric population [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Deferoxamine mesylate is contraindicated in patients with severe renal disease [see Contraindications (4)].
For patients with renal impairment, dose selection should usually start at the low end of the dosing range.
Deferoxamine can cause increases in serum creatinine (possibly dose-related), acute renal failure and renal tubular disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Monitor patients for changes in renal function.