5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Thromboembolic Risk
CYKLOKAPRON is contraindicated in patients with active intravascular clotting.
Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic and may increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Venous and arterial thrombosis or thromboembolism has been reported in patients treated with CYKLOKAPRON. Avoid concomitant use of CYKLOKAPRON and medical products that are pro-thrombotic, as the risk of thrombosis may be increased. These medications include but are not limited to, Factor IX Complex concentrates, Anti-inhibitor Coagulant concentrates, and hormonal contraceptives [see Drug Interactions (7.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
CYKLOKAPRON may cause seizures, including focal and generalized seizures. The most common setting for tranexamic acid-induced seizures has been during cardiovascular surgery (a setting in which CYKLOKAPRON is not FDA-approved and which uses doses of up to 10-fold higher than the recommended human dose and in patients inadvertently given tranexamic acid into the neuraxial system). CYKLOKAPRON is not approved and not recommended for neuraxial administration. Consider dose reduction during surgery and dose adjustments for patients with clinical conditions such as renal dysfunction. Closely monitor the patient during surgery. Consider electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for patients with history of seizures or who experience myoclonic movements, twitching, or show evidence of focal seizures. Discontinue CYKLOKAPRON if seizures occur.
5.4 Hypersensitivity Reactions
Cases of hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, have occurred with use of intravenous tranexamic acid. Discontinue treatment with CYKLOKAPRON if serious reaction occurs, provide appropriate medical management, and do not restart treatment. CYKLOKAPRON is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to tranexamic acid.
5.5 Visual Disturbances
Although not seen in humans, focal areas of retinal degeneration have been observed in cats and dogs following oral or intravenous tranexamic acid at doses between 250 to 1600 mg/kg/day (1.6 to 22 times the recommended usual human dose based on body surface area) from 6 days to 1 year. No retinal changes have been observed in eye examinations of patients treated with tranexamic acid for up to 8 years. Patients expected to be treated for greater than 3 months may consider ophthalmic monitoring including visual acuity and optical coherence tomography at regular intervals.
Discontinue CYKLOKAPRON if changes in ophthalmological examination occurs.