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CELEBREX® (celecoxib) Clinical Studies

14. CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Osteoarthritis

CELEBREX has demonstrated significant reduction in joint pain compared to placebo. CELEBREX was evaluated for treatment of the signs and the symptoms of OA of the knee and hip in placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of up to 12 weeks duration. In patients with OA, treatment with CELEBREX 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily resulted in improvement in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) osteoarthritis index, a composite of pain, stiffness, and functional measures in OA. In three 12-week studies of pain accompanying OA flare, CELEBREX doses of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily provided significant reduction of pain within 24 to 48 hours of initiation of dosing. At doses of 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg twice daily the effectiveness of CELEBREX was shown to be similar to that of naproxen 500 mg twice daily. Doses of 200 mg twice daily provided no additional benefit above that seen with 100 mg twice daily. A total daily dose of 200 mg has been shown to be equally effective whether administered as 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily.

14.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis

CELEBREX has demonstrated significant reduction in joint tenderness/pain and joint swelling compared to placebo. CELEBREX was evaluated for treatment of the signs and symptoms of RA in placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of up to 24 weeks in duration. CELEBREX was shown to be superior to placebo in these studies, using the ACR20 Responder Index, a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures in RA. CELEBREX doses of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily were similar in effectiveness and both were comparable to naproxen 500 mg twice daily.

Although CELEBREX 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily provided similar overall effectiveness, some patients derived additional benefit from the 200 mg twice daily dose. Doses of 400 mg twice daily provided no additional benefit above that seen with 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily.

14.3 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (NCT00652925)

In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, non-inferiority study, patients from 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or systemic onset JRA (with currently inactive systemic features), received one of the following treatments: celecoxib 3 mg/kg (to a maximum of 150 mg) twice daily; celecoxib 6 mg/kg (to a maximum of 300 mg) twice daily; or naproxen 7.5 mg/kg (to a maximum of 500 mg) twice daily. The response rates were based upon the JRA Definition of Improvement greater than or equal to 30% (JRA DOI 30) criterion, which is a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures of JRA. The JRA DOI 30 response rates at week 12 were 69%, 80% and 67% in the celecoxib 3 mg/kg twice daily, celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily, and naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily treatment groups, respectively.

The efficacy and safety of CELEBREX for JRA have not been studied beyond six months. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to CELEBREX has not been evaluated and it is unknown if the long-term risk may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to CELEBREX or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].

14.4 Ankylosing Spondylitis

CELEBREX was evaluated in AS patients in two placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of 6 and 12 weeks duration. CELEBREX at doses of 100 mg twice daily, 200 mg once daily and 400 mg once daily was shown to be statistically superior to placebo in these studies for all three co-primary efficacy measures assessing global pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), global disease activity (Visual Analogue Scale) and functional impairment (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index). In the 12-week study, there was no difference in the extent of improvement between the 200 mg and 400 mg CELEBREX doses in a comparison of mean change from baseline, but there was a greater percentage of patients who responded to CELEBREX 400 mg, 53%, than to CELEBREX 200 mg, 44%, using the Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis response criteria (ASAS 20). The ASAS 20 defines a responder as improvement from baseline of at least 20% and an absolute improvement of at least 10 mm, on a 0 mm to 100 mm scale, in at least three of the four following domains: patient global pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, and inflammation. The responder analysis also demonstrated no change in the responder rates beyond 6 weeks.

14.5 Analgesia, including Primary Dysmenorrhea

In acute analgesic models of post-oral surgery pain, post-orthopedic surgical pain, and primary dysmenorrhea, CELEBREX relieved pain that was rated by patients as moderate to severe. Single doses [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)] of CELEBREX provided pain relief within 60 minutes.

14.6 Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial: Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Celecoxib Integrated Safety vs. Ibuprofen Or Naproxen (PRECISION; NCT00346216)

Design

The PRECISION trial was a double-blind randomized controlled trial of cardiovascular safety in OA and RA patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease comparing celecoxib with naproxen and ibuprofen. Patients were randomized to a starting dose of 100 mg twice daily of celecoxib, 600 mg three times daily of ibuprofen, or 375 mg twice daily of naproxen, with the option of escalating the dose as needed for pain management. Based on labeled doses, OA patients randomized to celecoxib could not dose escalate.

The primary endpoint, the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) composite, was an independently adjudicated composite of cardiovascular death (including hemorrhagic death), non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke with 80% power to evaluate non-inferiority. All patients were prescribed open-label esomeprazole (20–40 mg) for gastroprotection. Treatment randomization was stratified by baseline low-dose aspirin use.

Additionally, there was a 4-month substudy assessing the effects of the three drugs on blood pressure as measured by ambulatory monitoring.

Results

Among subjects with OA, only 0.2% (17/7259) escalated celecoxib to the 200 mg twice daily dose, whereas 54.7% (3946/7208) escalated ibuprofen to 800 mg three times daily, and 54.8% (3937/7178) escalated naproxen to the 500 mg twice daily dose. Among subjects with RA, 55.7% (453/813) escalated celecoxib to the 200 mg twice daily dose, 56.5% (470/832) escalated ibuprofen to 800 mg three times daily, and 54.6% (432/791) escalated naproxen to the 500 mg twice daily dose; however, the RA population accounted for only 10% of the trial population.

Because relatively few celecoxib patients overall (5.8% [470/8072]) dose-escalated to 200 mg twice daily, the results of the PRECISION trial are not suitable for determining the relative CV safety of celecoxib at 200 mg twice daily compared to ibuprofen and naproxen at the doses taken.

Primary Endpoint

The trial had two prespecified analysis populations:

  • Intent-to-treat population (ITT): Comprised of all randomized subjects followed for a maximum of 30 months
  • Modified Intent-to-treat population (mITT): Comprised of all randomized subjects who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one post-baseline visit followed until the earlier of treatment discontinuation plus 30 days, or 43 months

Celecoxib, at the 100 mg twice daily dose, as compared with either naproxen or ibuprofen at the doses taken, met all four prespecified non-inferiority criteria (p<0.001 for non-inferiority in both comparisons) for the APTC endpoint, a composite of cardiovascular death (including hemorrhagic death), non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke [see Table 5]. Non-inferiority was prespecified as a hazard ratio (HR) of ≤1.12 in both ITT and mITT analyses, and upper 95% CI of ≤1.33 for ITT analysis and ≤1.40 for mITT analysis.

The primary analysis results for ITT and mITT are described in Table 5.

Table 5. Primary Analysis of the Adjudicated APTC Composite Endpoint
  Intent-To-Treat Analysis (ITT, through month 30)
Celecoxib Ibuprofen Naproxen
N 8,072 8,040 7,969
Subjects with Events 188 (2.3%) 218 (2.7%) 201 (2.5%)
Pairwise Comparison Celecoxib vs. Naproxen Celecoxib vs. Ibuprofen Ibuprofen vs. Naproxen
  HR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.76, 1.13) 0.86 (0.70, 1.04) 1.08 (0.89, 1.31)
Modified Intent-To-Treat Analysis (mITT, on treatment plus 30 days, through month 43)
Celecoxib Ibuprofen Naproxen
N 8,030 7,990 7,933
Subjects with Events 134 (1.7%) 155 (1.9%) 144 (1.8%)
Pairwise Comparison Celecoxib vs. Naproxen Celecoxib vs. Ibuprofen Ibuprofen vs. Naproxen
  HR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.72, 1.14) 0.81 (0.64, 1.02) 1.12 (0.89, 1.40)
Table 6. Summary of the Adjudicated APTC Components*
*
A patient may have experienced more than one component; therefore, the sum of the components is larger than the number of patients who experienced the composite outcome
Intent-To-Treat Analysis (ITT, through month 30)
Celecoxib Ibuprofen Naproxen
N 8,072 8,040 7,969
CV Death 68 (0.8%) 80 (1.0%) 86 (1.1%)
Non-Fatal MI 76 (0.9%) 92 (1.1%) 66 (0.8%)
Non-Fatal Stroke 51 (0.6%) 53 (0.7%) 57 (0.7%)
Modified Intent-To-Treat Analysis (mITT, on treatment plus 30 days, through month 43)
N 8,030 7,990 7,933
CV Death 35 (0.4%) 51 (0.6%) 49 (0.6%)
Non-fatal MI 58 (0.7%) 76 (1.0%) 53 (0.7%)
Non-fatal Stroke 43 (0.5%) 32 (0.4%) 45 (0.6%)

In the ITT analysis population through 30 months, all-cause mortality was 1.6% in the celecoxib group, 1.8% in the ibuprofen group, and 2.0% in the naproxen group.

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) Substudy

In the PRECISION-ABPM substudy, among the total of 444 analyzable patients at Month 4, celecoxib dosed at 100 mg twice daily decreased mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 0.3 mmHg, whereas ibuprofen and naproxen at the doses taken increased mean 24-hour SBP by 3.7 and 1.6 mmHg, respectively. These changes resulted in a statistically significant and clinically meaningful difference of 3.9 mmHg (p=0.0009) between celecoxib and ibuprofen and a non-statistically significant difference of 1.8 (p=0.119) mmHg between celecoxib and naproxen.

14.7 Special Studies

Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies (NCT00005094 and NCT00141193)

Cardiovascular safety was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three year studies involving patients with Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps treated with CELEBREX: the APC trial (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib) and the PreSAP trial (Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatous Polyps). In the APC trial, there was a dose-related increase in the composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke with celecoxib compared to placebo over 3 years of treatment. The PreSAP trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant increased risk for the same composite endpoint (adjudicated):

  • In the APC trial, the hazard ratios compared to placebo for a composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 – 8.5) with celecoxib 400 mg twice daily and 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 – 7.2) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 3.0% (20/671 subjects) and 2.5% (17/685 subjects), respectively, compared to 0.9% (6/679 subjects) with placebo treatment. The increases in both celecoxib dose groups versus placebo-treated patients were mainly due to an increased incidence of myocardial infarction.
  • In the PreSAP trial, the hazard ratio for this same composite endpoint (adjudicated) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 – 2.4) with celecoxib 400 mg once daily compared to placebo. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 2.3% (21/933 subjects) and 1.9% (12/628 subjects), respectively.

Clinical trials of other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs of up to three-years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. As a result, all NSAIDs are considered potentially associated with this risk.

Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study (CLASS)

This was a prospective, long-term, safety outcome study conducted post-marketing in approximately 5,800 OA patients and 2,200 RA patients. Patients received CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily or diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (common therapeutic doses). Median exposures for CELEBREX (n = 3,987) and diclofenac (n = 1,996) were 9 months while ibuprofen (n = 1,985) was 6 months. The primary endpoint of this outcome study was the incidence of complicated ulcers (gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation or obstruction). Patients were allowed to take concomitant low-dose (≤ 325 mg/day) aspirin (ASA) for cardiovascular prophylaxis (ASA subgroups: CELEBREX, n = 882; diclofenac, n = 445; ibuprofen, n = 412). Differences in the incidence of complicated ulcers between CELEBREX and the combined group of ibuprofen and diclofenac were not statistically significant.

Patients on CELEBREX and concomitant low-dose ASA (N=882) experienced 4-fold higher rates of complicated ulcers compared to those not on ASA (N=3105). The Kaplan-Meier rate for complicated ulcers at 9 months was 1.12% versus 0.32% for those on low-dose ASA and those not on ASA, respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

The estimated cumulative rates at 9 months of complicated and symptomatic ulcers for patients treated with CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily are described in Table 7. Table 7 also displays results for patients less than or greater than 65 years of age. The difference in rates between CELEBREX alone and CELEBREX with ASA groups may be due to the higher risk for GI events in ASA users.

Table 7: Complicated and Symptomatic Ulcer Rates in Patients Taking CELEBREX 400 mg Twice Daily (Kaplan-Meier Rates at 9 months [%]) Based on Risk Factors
All Patients
  CELEBREX alone (n=3105) 0.78
  CELEBREX with ASA (n=882) 2.19
Patients <65 Years
  CELEBREX alone (n=2025) 0.47
  CELEBREX with ASA (n=403) 1.26
Patients ≥65 Years
  CELEBREX alone (n=1080) 1.40
  CELEBREX with ASA (n=479) 3.06

In a small number of patients with a history of ulcer disease, the complicated and symptomatic ulcer rates in patients taking CELEBREX alone or CELEBREX with ASA were, respectively, 2.56% (n=243) and 6.85% (n=91) at 48 weeks. These results are to be expected in patients with a prior history of ulcer disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Cardiovascular safety outcomes were also evaluated in the CLASS trial. Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates for investigator-reported serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (including MI, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, unstable angina, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents) demonstrated no differences between the CELEBREX, diclofenac, or ibuprofen treatment groups. The cumulative rates in all patients at nine months for CELEBREX, diclofenac, and ibuprofen were 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.1%, respectively. The cumulative rates in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 1%. The cumulative rates for myocardial infarction in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 0.2%. There was no placebo group in the CLASS trial, which limits the ability to determine whether the three drugs tested had no increased risk of CV events or if they all increased the risk to a similar degree. In the CLASS study, the Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months of peripheral edema in patients on CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily and diclofenac 75 mg twice daily were 4.5%, 6.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The rates of hypertension from the CLASS trial in the CELEBREX, ibuprofen and diclofenac-treated patients were 2.4%, 4.2% and 2.5%, respectively.

Endoscopic Studies

The correlation between findings of short-term endoscopic studies with CELEBREX and the relative incidence of clinically significant serious upper GI events with long-term use has not been established. Serious clinically significant upper GI bleeding has been observed in patients receiving CELEBREX in controlled and open-labeled trials [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Studies (14.7)]

A randomized, double-blind study in 430 RA patients was conducted in which an endoscopic examination was performed at 6 months. The incidence of endoscopic ulcers in patients taking CELEBREX 200 mg twice daily was 4% vs. 15% for patients taking diclofenac SR 75 mg twice daily. However, CELEBREX was not statistically different than diclofenac for clinically relevant GI outcomes in the CLASS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.7)].

The incidence of endoscopic ulcers was studied in two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies in 2157 OA and RA patients in whom baseline endoscopies revealed no ulcers. There was no dose relationship for the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers and the dose of CELEBREX (50 mg to 400 mg twice daily). The incidence for naproxen 500 mg twice daily was 16.2% and 17.6% in the two studies, for placebo was 2.0% and 2.3%, and for all doses of CELEBREX the incidence ranged between 2.7%–5.9%. There have been no large, clinical outcome studies to compare clinically relevant GI outcomes with CELEBREX and naproxen.

In the endoscopic studies, approximately 11% of patients were taking aspirin (≤ 325 mg/day). In the CELEBREX groups, the endoscopic ulcer rate appeared to be higher in aspirin users than in non-users. However, the increased rate of ulcers in these aspirin users was less than the endoscopic ulcer rates observed in the active comparator groups, with or without aspirin.

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