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CADUET® (amlodipine besilate, atorvastatin calcium)

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Drug Interactions

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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Data from a drug-drug interaction study involving 10 mg of amlodipine and 80 mg of atorvastatin in healthy subjects indicate that the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine are not altered when the drugs are co-administered. The effect of amlodipine on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin showed no effect on the Cmax: 91% (90% confidence interval: 80 to 103%), but the AUC of atorvastatin increased by 18% (90% confidence interval: 109 to 127%) in the presence of amlodipine, which is not clinically meaningful.

No drug interaction studies have been conducted with CADUET and other drugs, although studies have been conducted in the individual amlodipine and atorvastatin components, as described below:

Amlodipine

7.1 Impact of Other Drugs on Amlodipine

CYP3A Inhibitors

Co-administration with CYP3A inhibitors (moderate and strong) results in increased systemic exposure to amlodipine and may require dose reduction. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A inhibitors to determine the need for dose adjustment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

CYP3A Inducers

No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A inducers on amlodipine. Blood pressure should be closely monitored when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A inducers.

Sildenafil

Monitor for hypotension when sildenafil is co-administered with amlodipine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

7.2 Impact of Amlodipine on Other Drugs

Immunosuppressants

Amlodipine may increase the systemic exposure of cyclosporine or tacrolimus when co-administered. Frequent monitoring of trough blood levels of cyclosporine and tacrolimus is recommended and adjust the dose when appropriate [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Atorvastatin

The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent administration of fibric acid derivatives, lipid-modifying doses of niacin, cyclosporine, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, HIV and HCV protease inhibitors, and itraconazole) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 Strong Inhibitors of CYP3A4

Atorvastatin is metabolized by CYP3A4. Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 can lead to increases in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The extent of interaction and potentiation of effects depend on the variability of effect on CYP3A4.

Clarithromycin: Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin 80 mg with clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) compared to that of atorvastatin alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking clarithromycin, avoid atorvastatin doses >20 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Combination of Protease Inhibitors: Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin with several combinations of protease inhibitors [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In patients taking tipranavir plus ritonavir or glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir, concomitant use of atorvastatin should be avoided. In patients taking lopinavir plus ritonavir or simeprevir, use the lowest necessary atorvastatin dose. In patients taking saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, or elbasvir plus grazoprevir, the dose of atorvastatin should not exceed 20 mg. In patients taking nelfinavir, the dose of atorvastatin should not exceed 40 mg and close clinical monitoring is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Itraconazole: Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin 40 mg and itraconazole 200 mg [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking itraconazole, avoid atorvastatin doses >20 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.4 Grapefruit Juice

Contains one or more components that inhibit CYP3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, especially with excessive grapefruit juice consumption (> 1.2 liters per day).

7.5 Transporter Inhibitors

Atorvastatin is a substrate of the hepatic transporters. Atorvastatin-metabolites are substrates of the OATP1B1 transporter [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Cyclosporine: Inhibitors of the OATP1B1 (e.g., cyclosporine) can increase the bioavailability of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin 10 mg and cyclosporine 5.2 mg/kg/day compared to that of atorvastatin alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

The co-administration of atorvastatin with cyclosporine should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Concomitant administration of atorvastatin 20 mg and letermovir 480 mg daily resulted in an increase in exposure to atorvastatin (ratio of AUC: 3.29) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Letermovir inhibits efflux transporters P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, OAT2 and hepatic transporter OATP1B1/1B3, thus it increases exposure to atorvastatin. Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

The magnitude of CYP3A- and OATP1B1/1B3-mediated drug interactions on co-administered drugs may be different when letermovir is co-administered with cyclosporine. Use of atorvastatin is not recommended in patients taking letermovir co-administered with cyclosporine.

Concomitant administration of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir or elbasvir and grazoprevir may lead to increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and an increased risk of myopathy.

Coadministration of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir with atorvastatin increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by 8.3-fold due in part to BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, and CYP3A inhibition; therefore, coadministration of atorvastatin in patients receiving concomitant medications with products containing glecaprevir and pibrentasvir is not recommended.

Coadministration of elbasvir and grazoprevir with atorvastatin increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by 1.9-fold due in part to BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, and CYP3A inhibition; therefore, the dose of atorvastatin should not exceed 20 mg daily in patients receiving concomitant medications with products containing elbasvir and grazoprevir [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.6 Gemfibrozil

Because of an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are co-administered with gemfibrozil, avoid concomitant administration of atorvastatin with gemfibrozil [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.7 Other Fibrates

The risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.8 Niacin

The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when atorvastatin is used in combination with niacin; consider a reduction in atorvastatin dosage in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.9 Rifampin or other Inducers of CYP3A4

Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., efavirenz, rifampin) can lead to variable reductions in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Because of the dual interaction mechanism of rifampin, simultaneous co-administration of atorvastatin with rifampin is recommended, as delayed administration of atorvastatin after administration of rifampin has been associated with a significant reduction in atorvastatin plasma concentrations.

7.10 Digoxin

When multiple doses of atorvastatin and digoxin were co-administered, steady-state plasma digoxin concentrations increased [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Monitor digoxin levels.

7.11 Oral Contraceptives

Co-administration of atorvastatin and an oral contraceptive increased AUC values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consider these increases when selecting an oral contraceptive for a woman taking CADUET.

7.12 Warfarin

Atorvastatin had no clinically significant effect on prothrombin time when administered to patients receiving chronic warfarin treatment.

7.13 Colchicine

Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with atorvastatin co-administered with colchicine.

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