Acute emergencies from use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use or to unintended intrathecal injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.9), Adverse Reactions (6)].
If not treated immediately, convulsions with simultaneous hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis plus myocardial depression from the direct effects of bupivacaine may result in cardiac arrhythmias, bradycardia, asystole, ventricular fibrillation, or cardiac arrest. Respiratory abnormalities, including apnea, may occur. Hypoventilation or apnea due to unintentional intrathecal injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection may produce these same signs and also lead to cardiac arrest if ventilatory support is not instituted. If cardiac arrest should occur, successful outcome may require prolonged resuscitative efforts.
The first step in the management of systemic toxic reactions, as well as hypoventilation or apnea due to unintentional intrathecal injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, consists of immediate attention to the establishment and maintenance of a patent airway and effective assisted or controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen with a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. Endotracheal intubation, using drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated after initial administration of oxygen by mask if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway, or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated.
If necessary, use drugs to manage the convulsions. A bolus intravenous dose of a benzodiazepine will counteract CNS stimulation related to Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection. Immediately after the institution of ventilatory measures, evaluate the adequacy of the circulation. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require Advance Cardiac Life Support measures.