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bupivacaine hydrochloride injection, USP Description

11 DESCRIPTION

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection contains bupivacaine hydrochloride, an amide local anesthetic, as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The route of administration for Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection (without epinephrine) is by injection, for infiltration, perineural, caudal, epidural, or retrobulbar use. The route of administration for Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection is by injection, for infiltration, perineural, caudal, or epidural use. Multiple-dose vials contain methylparaben [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Bupivacaine hydrochloride is 2-piperidinecarboxamide, 1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, monohydrate. It is a white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in 95 percent ethanol, soluble in water, and slightly soluble in chloroform or acetone. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure

Bupivacaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine, contains bupivacaine hydrochloride and epinephrine (an alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist) as active pharmaceutical ingredients. This product is for injection via local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, and caudal and lumbar epidural blocks. Multiple-dose vials contain methylparaben and they should not be used for caudal and lumbar epidural blocks.

Epinephrine is (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl] benzyl alcohol. Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a clear and colorless sterile isotonic solution. Each mL of single-dose vial contains 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 7.5 mg of bupivacaine hydrochloride (equivalent to 2.22 mg, 4.44 mg, or 6.66 mg of bupivacaine, respectively), sodium chloride for isotonicity, sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH between 4 and 6.5, in water for injection.

For the multiple-dose vials, each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as preservative.

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is a clear and colorless sterile isotonic solution. Each mL contains 2.5 mg or 5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride (equivalent to 2.22 mg or 4.44 mg of bupivacaine, respectively), and 0.005 mg of epinephrine, with sodium chloride for isotonicity, 0.1 mg sodium metabisulfite as antioxidant, and 0.1 mg edetate calcium disodium anhydrous as stabilizer. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to between 3.3 and 5.5 with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid.

For the multiple-dose vials, each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as preservative.

The specific gravity of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection [0.5% (5 mg/mL) of bupivacaine] at 25 ºC is 1.007.

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