5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 New Primary Malignancies
New primary malignancies, cutaneous and non-cutaneous, have been observed in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors and can occur with BRAFTOVI.
In COLUMBUS, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC), including keratoacanthoma (KA), occurred in 2.6%, and basal cell carcinoma occurred in 1.6% of patients who received BRAFTOVI in combination with binimetinib. Median time to first occurrence of cuSCC/KA was 5.8 months (range 1 to 9 months) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
For patients who received BRAFTOVI as a single agent, cuSCC/KA was reported in 8%, basal cell carcinoma in 1%, and a new primary melanoma in 5% of patients.
In BEACON CRC, cuSCC/KA occurred in 1.4% of patients with CRC, and a new primary melanoma occurred in 1.4% of patients who received BRAFTOVI in combination with cetuximab.
Perform dermatologic evaluations prior to initiating treatment, every 2 months during treatment, and for up to 6 months following discontinuation of treatment. Manage suspicious skin lesions with excision and dermatopathologic evaluation. Dose modification is not recommended for new primary cutaneous malignancies.
Based on its mechanism of action, BRAFTOVI may promote malignancies associated with activation of RAS through mutation or other mechanisms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Monitor patients receiving BRAFTOVI for signs and symptoms of non-cutaneous malignancies. Discontinue BRAFTOVI for RAS mutation-positive non-cutaneous malignancies [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
5.2 Tumor Promotion in BRAF Wild-Type Tumors
In vitro experiments have demonstrated paradoxical activation of MAP-kinase signaling and increased cell proliferation in BRAF wild-type cells, which are exposed to BRAF inhibitors. Confirm evidence of BRAF V600E or V600K mutation prior to initiating BRAFTOVI [see Indications and Usage (1), Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
In COLUMBUS, hemorrhage occurred in 19% of patients receiving BRAFTOVI in combination with binimetinib; Grade 3 or greater hemorrhage occurred in 3.2% of patients. The most frequent hemorrhagic events were gastrointestinal, including rectal hemorrhage (4.2%), hematochezia (3.1%), and hemorrhoidal hemorrhage (1%). Fatal intracranial hemorrhage in the setting of new or progressive brain metastases occurred in 1.6% of patients.
In BEACON CRC, hemorrhage occurred in 19% of patients receiving BRAFTOVI in combination with cetuximab; Grade 3 or higher hemorrhage occurred in 1.9% of patients, including fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 0.5% of patients. The most frequent hemorrhagic events were epistaxis (6.9%), hematochezia (2.3%) and rectal hemorrhage (2.3%).
Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Uveitis, including iritis and iridocyclitis, has been reported in patients treated with BRAFTOVI in combination with binimetinib. In COLUMBUS, the incidence of uveitis among patients treated with BRAFTOVI in combination with binimetinib was 4%.
Assess for visual symptoms at each visit. Perform an ophthalmologic evaluation at regular intervals and for new or worsening visual disturbances, and to follow new or persistent ophthalmologic findings. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
5.5 QT Prolongation
BRAFTOVI is associated with dose-dependent QTc interval prolongation in some patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. In COLUMBUS, an increase in QTcF to >500 ms was measured in 0.5% (1/192) of patients who received BRAFTOVI in combination with binimetinib.
Monitor patients who already have or who are at significant risk of developing QTc prolongation, including patients with known long QT syndromes, clinically significant bradyarrhythmias, severe or uncontrolled heart failure and those taking other medicinal products associated with QT prolongation. Correct hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia prior to and during BRAFTOVI administration. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue for QTc >500 ms [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
5.6 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity
Based on its mechanism of action, BRAFTOVI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Encorafenib produced embryo-fetal developmental changes in rats and rabbits and was an abortifacient in rabbits at doses greater than or equal to those resulting in exposures approximately 26 (in the rat) and 178 (in the rabbit) times the human exposure at the recommended dose of 450 mg, with no clear findings at lower doses.
Advise women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use an effective, non-hormonal method of contraception since BRAFTOVI can render hormonal contraceptives ineffective, during treatment and for 2 weeks after the final dose of BRAFTOVI [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].
5.7 Risks Associated With BRAFTOVI as a Single Agent
BRAFTOVI when used as a single agent is associated with an increased risk of certain adverse reactions compared to when BRAFTOVI is used in combination with binimetinib. In COLUMBUS, Grades 3 or 4 dermatologic reactions occurred in 21% of patients treated with BRAFTOVI single agent compared to 2% of patients treated with BRAFTOVI in combination with binimetinib [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
If binimetinib is temporarily interrupted or permanently discontinued, reduce the dose of BRAFTOVI as recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].