5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Gastrointestinal Toxicity
Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain occur with BOSULIF treatment. Monitor and manage patients using standards of care, including antidiarrheals, antiemetics, and fluid replacement.
In the randomized clinical trial in patients with newly-diagnosed Ph+ CML, the median time to onset for diarrhea (all grades) was 4 days and the median duration per event was 3 days.
Among 546 patients in a single-arm study in patients with CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, the median time to onset for diarrhea (all grades) was 2 days and the median duration per event was 2 days. Among the patients who experienced diarrhea, the median number of episodes of diarrhea per patient during treatment with BOSULIF was 3 (range 1–268).
Thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia occur with BOSULIF treatment. Perform complete blood counts weekly for the first month of therapy and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated. To manage myelosuppression, withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
5.3 Hepatic Toxicity
Bosutinib may cause elevations in serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST]).
Two cases consistent with drug induced liver injury (defined as concurrent elevations in ALT or AST greater than or equal to 3×ULN with total bilirubin greater than 2×ULN and alkaline phosphatase less than 2×ULN) have occurred without alternative causes. This represented 2 out 1711 patients in BOSULIF clinical trials.
In the 268 patients from the safety population in the randomized clinical trial in patients with newly-diagnosed CML in the BOSULIF treatment group, the incidence of ALT elevation was 68.3% and AST elevation was 56.0%. Of patients who experienced transaminase elevations of any grade, 73% experienced their first event within the first 3 months. The median time to onset of increased ALT and AST was 29 and 56 days, respectively, and the median duration was 19 and 15 days, respectively.
Among the 546 patients in a single-arm study in patients with CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, the incidence of ALT elevation was 53.3% and AST elevation was 46.7%. Sixty percent of the patients experienced an increase in either ALT or AST. Most cases of transaminase elevations in this study occurred early in treatment; of patients who experienced transaminase elevations of any grade, more than 81% experienced their first event within the first 3 months. The median time to onset of increased ALT and AST was 22 and 29 days, respectively, and the median duration for each was 21 days.
Perform hepatic enzyme tests monthly for the first 3 months of BOSULIF treatment and as clinically indicated. In patients with transaminase elevations, monitor liver enzymes more frequently. Withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
5.4 Cardiovascular Toxicity
BOSULIF can cause cardiovascular toxicity including cardiac failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiac ischemic events. Cardiac failure events occurred more frequently in previously treated patients than in patients with newly diagnosed CML and were more frequent in patients with advanced age or risk factors, including previous medical history of cardiac failure. Cardiac ischemic events occurred in both previously treated patients and in patients with newly diagnosed CML and were more common in patients with coronary artery disease risk factors, including history of diabetes, body mass index greater than 30, hypertension, and vascular disorders.
In a randomized study with newly diagnosed CML, cardiac failure occurred in 1.9% of patients treated with BOSULIF compared to 0.8% of patients treated with imatinib. Cardiac ischemic events occurred in 4.9% of patients treated with BOSULIF compared to 0.8% of patients treated with imatinib.
In a single-arm study in patients with CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, cardiac failure was observed in 5.3% of patients and cardiac ischemic events were observed in 4.9% of patients treated with BOSULIF.
Monitor patients for signs and symptoms consistent with cardiac failure and cardiac ischemia and treat as clinically indicated. Interrupt, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
5.5 Fluid Retention
Fluid retention occurs with BOSULIF and may manifest as pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema, and/or peripheral edema.
In the randomized clinical trial of 268 patients with newly-diagnosed CML in the bosutinib treatment group, 3 patients (1.1%) experienced severe fluid retention of Grade 3, 1 patient experienced Grade 3 pericardial effusion, and 2 patients experienced Grade 3 pleural effusion. Among 546 patients in a single-arm study in patients with Ph+ CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, Grade 3 or 4 fluid retention was reported in 30 patients (6%). Some patients experienced more than one fluid retention event. Specifically, 24 patients experienced Grade 3 or 4 pleural effusions, 9 patients experienced Grade 3 or Grade 4 pericardial effusions, and 6 patients experienced Grade 3 edema.
5.6 Renal Toxicity
An on-treatment decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has occurred in patients treated with BOSULIF. Table 3 identifies the shift from baseline to lowest observed eGFR during BOSULIF therapy for patients in the pooled leukemia studies regardless of line of therapy. The median duration of therapy with BOSULIF was approximately 24 months (range, 0.03 to 155) for patients in these studies.
|Abbreviations: eGFR=estimated glomerular filtration rate; N/n=number of patients.|
Notes: eGFR was calculated using Modification in Diet in Renal Disease method (MDRD).
Notes: Grading is based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Classification by eGFR: Normal: greater than or equal to 90, Mild: 60 to less than 90, Mild to Moderate: 45 to less than 60, Moderate to Severe: 30 to less than 45, Severe: 15 to less than 30, Kidney Failure: less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2.
Renal Function Status
Mild to Moderate
Moderate to Severe
Mild to Moderate
Moderate to Severe
Monitor renal function at baseline and during therapy with BOSULIF, with particular attention to those patients who have preexisting renal impairment or risk factors for renal dysfunction. Consider dose adjustment in patients with baseline and treatment emergent renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
5.7 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity
Based on findings from animal studies and its mechanism of action, BOSULIF can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data in pregnant women to inform the drug-associated risk. In animal reproduction studies conducted in rats and rabbits, oral administration of bosutinib during organogenesis caused adverse developmental outcomes, including structural abnormalities, embryo-fetal mortality, and alterations to growth at maternal exposures (AUC) as low as 1.2 times the human exposure at the dose of 500 mg/day. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 2 weeks after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)].